Who or What is the Holy Spirit? Part 3

In the first part we explored the holy spirit/spirit of God/spirit of Yahweh as presented in the Hebrew scriptures, and found it to be describing the dynamic, creative, active power and presence of God working in His creation, with and through the people He chose.

In the second part we looked at the New Testament scriptures and found them also reflecting this same spirit and activity, indeed we observed many of the NT writers quoting OT scriptures when referring to the activity of the spirit currently occurring in their time.

However, we also see something that appears to be new and different about the spirits activity in the NT, an ‘indwelling presence’, and this is what we will be looking at now.

In John’s gospel we see Jesus telling his disciples that the spirit, ‘paraklete’ (comforter/counsellor) will come teaching, helping, guiding them:

John 14:16 RSV
And I will pray the Father, and he will give you another Counselor, to be with you for ever,

John 14:26 RSV
But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, he will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all that I have said to you.

John 15:26 RSV
But when the Counselor comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness to me;

Why would it be advantageous if Jesus went away?

John 16:7 RSV
Nevertheless I tell you the truth: it is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Counselor will not come to you; but if I go, I will send him to you.

John 16:13 RSV
When the Spirit of truth comes, he will guide you into all the truth; for he will not speak on his own authority, but whatever he hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things that are to come.

We also see in this section of scripture Jesus telling his disciples that he himself will come to them:

John 14:3 RSV
And when I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again and will take you to myself, that where I am you may be also.

John 14:17-18 RSV
even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him; you know him, for he dwells with you, and will be in you. 18 “I will not leave you desolate; I will come to you.

John 14:21 RSV
He who has my commandments and keeps them, he it is who loves me; and he who loves me will be loved by my Father, and I will love him and manifest myself to him.”

John 14:23 RSV
Jesus answered him, “If a man loves me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our home with him.

John 14:28 RSV
You heard me say to you, ‘I go away, and I will come to you.’ If you loved me, you would have rejoiced, because I go to the Father; for the Father is greater than I.

John 16:17 RSV
Some of his disciples said to one another, “What is this that he says to us, ‘A little while, and you will not see me, and again a little while, and you will see me’; and, ‘because I go to the Father’?”

So the holy spirit is coming and Jesus is coming! What is Jesus really telling them here?

Is Jesus describing an indwelling of both the Father and himself in his followers just like the indwelling of the Father in him?

John 14:17 RSV
even the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees him nor knows him; you know him, for he dwells with you, and will be in you.

John 14:20 RSV
In that day you will know that I am in my Father, and you in me, and I in you.

Was Jesus the one who would baptise with the holy spirit?

Mark 1:8 RSV
I have baptized you with water; but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit.”

Did this begin at Pentecost in Jerusalem, as identified by Peter?

Acts 2:32-33 RSV
This Jesus God raised up, and of that we all are witnesses. 33 Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this which you see and hear.

In Paul’s writings he describes this indwelling interchangeably as ‘the spirit/spirit of God dwells in’, ‘the spirit of Christ dwells in’ and ‘Christ dwells in’, as can be seen in the scriptures following:

Romans 8:9-11 RSV
But you are not in the flesh, you are in the Spirit, if in fact the Spirit of God dwells in you. Any one who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him. 10 But if Christ is in you, although your bodies are dead because of sin, your spirits are alive because of righteousness. 11 If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit which dwells in you.

1 Corinthians 3:16 RSV
Do you not know that you are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit dwells in you?

Ephesians 2:22 RSV
in whom you also are built into it for a dwelling place of God in the Spirit.

Galatians 4:6 RSV
And because you are sons, God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying, “Abba! Father!”

Philippians 1:19 RSV
Yes, and I shall rejoice. For I know that through your prayers and the help of the Spirit of Jesus Christ this will turn out for my deliverance,

2 Corinthians 13:5 RSV
Examine yourselves, to see whether you are holding to your faith. Test yourselves. Do you not realize that Jesus Christ is in you? –unless indeed you fail to meet the test!

Galatians 2:20 RSV
I have been crucified with Christ; it is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me; and the life I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.

Colossians 1:27 RSV
To them God chose to make known how great among the Gentiles are the riches of the glory of this mystery, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory.

So it is like we are filled with Christ, who himself is filled with the Father, so by extension are we, by their very living presence and indwelling in spirit. This means that Jesus is now present to the believer only in and through the spirit, and that the mark of the spirit is both the recognition of Jesus’ present status and the reproduction of the character of his sonship and resurrection life in the believer.

In this way is Christ with us always?

Matthew 28:20 RSV
teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age.”

Summary
We have seen that it is now possible to have this new deep intimate personal relationship with the Father and Jesus, inside of us by this ‘indwelling’, such that we can say with Paul that ‘Christ is our life’ (Colossians 3:4), and that we are the children of the Father, witnessed to us by this indwelling presence.

The Father and Christ are not dealing with us ‘at arms length’ or through some third party, but are right here in us, with us, through us, for us, as us – we couldn’t be ‘yoked together’ more closely.

For those who would like to study the holy spirit in more depth and detail we would strongly recommend you start by reviewing Sean Finnegan’s excellent study article and free PDF Download

There is also a link to it on our ‘Study Materials’ tab, along with other available materials.

Who or What is the holy spirit? Continued

Previously we saw from a review of the Hebrew scriptures relating to the spirit of Yahweh, or the holy spirit, that rather than being another person distinct from Yahweh it describes the creative, dynamic, active presence and influence of the glorious Yahweh God in and upon and with His chosen people.

We will now continue our study by looking at how the holy spirit is presented in the new testament scriptures.

The first mention of the holy spirit in the New Testament scriptures is in Luke 1 when Zechariah is informed about the coming birth of his son John (the Baptist) to Elizabeth his wife.

Notice that John was to be filled with the holy spirit from birth. Is this associated with ‘the spirit and power of Elijah’, the Old Testament prophet?

Luke 1:13-17 RSV
But the angel said to him, “Do not be afraid, Zechari’ah, for your prayer is heard, and your wife Elizabeth will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 14 And you will have joy and gladness, and many will rejoice at his birth; 15 for he will be great before the Lord, and he shall drink no wine nor strong drink, and he will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother’s womb. 16 And he will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God, 17 and he will go before him in the spirit and power of Eli’jah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, to make ready for the Lord a people prepared.”

Will John turn many of the people of Israel back to Yahweh their God? Verse 16 above.

The second mention of the holy spirit is to Mary concerning the conception of Jesus in her womb.

When she asks ‘how can this be?’, is she told that Yahweh (the Most High) will be Jesus’ father?

Is ‘the power of the Most High’ also called ‘the holy spirit’, and also referred to as God (Yahweh), hence the reason that he (Jesus) will be ‘called holy, the son of God’?

Luke 1:31-35 RSV
And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. 32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there will be no end.” 34 And Mary said to the angel, “How shall this be, since I have no husband?” 35 And the angel said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God.

Matthew1:18-20 RSV
Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child of the Holy Spirit; 19 and her husband Joseph, being a just man and unwilling to put her to shame, resolved to divorce her quietly. 20 But as he considered this, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary your wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Spirit;

Are we seeing here the spirit of Yahweh, the holy spirit, the very ‘presence of Yahweh’ identified as the creative, dynamic, active power and cause of the conception of Jesus – the glorious Yahweh God working in Mary to become the father of Jesus?

Is this the way that Mary would have understood what she was told? Review those verses above.

Did the Father ever give testimony as to who Jesus is, and by extension who Jesus’ father is?

When he was baptised by John:

Matthew 3:16-17 RSV
And when Jesus was baptized, he went up immediately from the water, and behold, the heavens were opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and alighting on him; 17 and lo, a voice from heaven, saying, “This is my beloved Son, with whom I am well pleased.”

At the transfiguration again, this time with an added instruction:

Mark 9:7 RSV
And a cloud overshadowed them, and a voice came out of the cloud, “This is my beloved Son; listen to him.”

….’listen to him’.

Is the ‘spirit of God’ the power and presence of God in action, referred to as ‘the finger of God’?

Matthew 12:28 RSV
But if it is by the Spirit of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.

Luke 11:20 RSV
But if it is by the finger of God that I cast out demons, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.

Exodus 8:19 WEB
Then the magicians said to Pharaoh, “This is the finger of God:” and Pharaoh’s heart was hardened, and he didn’t listen to them; as Yahweh had spoken.

Are we seeing the same holy spirit, Yahweh’s presence in action, as in the Hebrew scriptures?

Does Peter refer to Yahweh’s stated intention given through Joel?

Acts 2:16-17 RSV
but this is what was spoken by the prophet Joel: 17 ‘And in the last days it shall be, God declares, that I will pour out my Spirit upon all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, and your young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dream dreams;

Does Paul refer to what Yahweh said by His spirit through Isaiah?

Acts 28:25-26 RSV
So, as they disagreed among themselves, they departed, after Paul had made one statement: “The Holy Spirit was right in saying to your fathers through Isaiah the prophet: 26 ‘Go to this people, and say, You shall indeed hear but never understand, and you shall indeed see but never perceive.

Does Peter say that Yahweh spoke through the prophets by His spirit?

2 Peter 1:20-21 RSV
First of all you must understand this, that no prophecy of scripture is a matter of one’s own interpretation, 21 because no prophecy ever came by the impulse of man, but men moved by the Holy Spirit spoke from God.

Is it Yahweh God doing the inspiring?

2 Timothy 3:16 RSV
All scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness,

Are we told that the same spirit of the Father will be present and speaking through us?

Matthew 10:19-20 RSV
When they deliver you up, do not be anxious how you are to speak or what you are to say; for what you are to say will be given to you in that hour; 20 for it is not you who speak, but the Spirit of your Father speaking through you.

Is God the Father Himself spirit, is this His essential nature?

John 4:23-24 RSV
But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth, for such the Father seeks to worship him. 24 God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”

Does Paul, referring back to Moses in Yahweh’s presence in Exodus state that the Lord God (Yahweh) is the spirit?

Exodus 34:34-35 WEB
But when Moses went in before Yahweh to speak with him, he took the veil off, until he came out; and he came out, and spoke to the children of Israel that which he was commanded. 35 The children of Israel saw Moses’ face, that the skin of Moses’ face shone: and Moses put the veil on his face again, until he went in to speak with him.

2 Corinthians 3:7-8 RSV
Now if the dispensation of death, carved in letters on stone, came with such splendor that the Israelites could not look at Moses’ face because of its brightness, fading as this was,8 will not the dispensation of the Spirit be attended with greater splendor?

2 Corinthians 3:16-18 RSV
but when a man turns to the Lord the veil is removed. 17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom. 18 And we all, with unveiled face, beholding the glory of the Lord, are being changed into his likeness from one degree of glory to another; for this comes from the Lord who is the Spirit.

Are we able to turn to God and have this veil taken away only through Christ?

2 Corinthians 3:14 RSV
But their minds were hardened; for to this day, when they read the old covenant, that same veil remains unlifted, because only through Christ is it taken away.

Was it through this same spirit presence of God that Christ was able to offer himself without blemish?

Hebrews 9:14 RSV
how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify your conscience from dead works to serve the living God.

Is there one God and Father who is in all?

Ephesians 4:6 RSV
one God and Father of us all, who is above all and through all and in all.

Can the spirit of Yahweh God, who raised Jesus from the dead, dwell in us also?

Romans 8:11 RSV
If the Spirit of him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, he who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will give life to your mortal bodies also through his Spirit which dwells in you.

Is receiving the indwelling spirit of God referred to as being ‘born again’?

John 3:5-6 RSV
Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit, he cannot enter the kingdom of God. 6 That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit.

Are we told that this will be a ‘baptizing’?

Acts 1:4-5 RSV
And while staying with them he charged them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the promise of the Father, which, he said, “you heard from me, 5 for John baptized with water, but before many days you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit.”

Will this bear witness that we are also Yahweh God’s children?

Romans 8:15-16 KJV
For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father. 16 The Spirit itself beareth witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:

Are we told to be filled with the spirit?

Ephesians 5:18 RSV
And do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery; but be filled with the Spirit,

Is the Father’s spirit presence in the inner man described as ‘being filled with all the fullness of God’?

Ephesians 3:14-19 RSV
For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, 15 from whom every family in heaven and on earth is named, 16 that according to the riches of his glory he may grant you to be strengthened with might through his Spirit in the inner man, 17 and that Christ may dwell in your hearts through faith; that you, being rooted and grounded in love, 18 may have power to comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and length and height and depth, 19 and to know the love of Christ which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled with all the fulness of God.

Does God the Father actually dwell in us?

1 John 4:12-16 RSV
No man has ever seen God; if we love one another, God abides in us and his love is perfected in us. 13 By this we know that we abide in him and he in us, because he has given us of his own Spirit. 14 And we have seen and testify that the Father has sent his Son as the Savior of the world. 15 Whoever confesses that Jesus is the Son of God, God abides in him, and he in God. 16 So we know and believe the love God has for us. God is love, and he who abides in love abides in God, and God abides in him.

Does this produce regeneration and renewal in us in hope of eternal life?

Titus 3:4-7 RSV
but when the goodness and loving kindness of God our Savior appeared, 5 he saved us, not because of deeds done by us in righteousness, but in virtue of his own mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewal in the Holy Spirit, 6 which he poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior, 7 so that we might be justified by his grace and become heirs in hope of eternal life.

Did Jesus say that the Father was in him? As evidenced by the works being done?

John 14:11 RSV
Believe me that I am in the Father and the Father in me; or else believe me for the sake of the works themselves.

Did Jesus also describe the indwelling of the holy spirit as being like ‘rivers of living water’, which those who believed were to receive?

John 7:37-39 RSV
On the last day of the feast, the great day, Jesus stood up and proclaimed, “If any one thirst, let him come to me and drink. 38 He who believes in me, as the scripture has said, ‘Out of his heart shall flow rivers of living water.'” 39 Now this he said about the Spirit, which those who believed in him were to receive; for as yet the Spirit had not been given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.

This is a direct reference back to Isaiah and the spirit in the Hebrew scriptures.

Isaiah 44:3 RSV
For I will pour water on the thirsty land, and streams on the dry ground; I will pour my Spirit upon your descendants, and my blessing on your offspring.

Isaiah 58:11 WEB
and Yahweh will guide you continually, and satisfy your soul in dry places, and make strong your bones; and you shall be like a watered garden, and like a spring of water, whose waters don’t fail.

Does it produce continual guidance – v11 above?

Is the spirit presence also called ‘a counsellor’?

John 15:26 RSV
But when the Counsellor comes, whom I shall send to you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, who proceeds from the Father, he will bear witness to me;

The Greek word for ‘counsellor’ is ‘parakletos’, Strong’s number 3875 and means ‘an advocate intercessor, comforter, helper, who is along side or close beside’.

Does Jesus send this holy spirit presence (also called ‘the spirit of truth’) from the Father? Same verse.

Were they to wait in Jerusalem? Is it the gift and power of the Father?

Acts 1:4 RSV
And while staying with them he charged them not to depart from Jerusalem, but to wait for the promise of the Father, which, he said, “you heard from me,

Luke 24:49 RSV
And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but stay in the city, until you are clothed with power from on high.”

Again was this told beforehand through Isaiah, and that it is Yahweh doing the comforting?

Isaiah 66:13 RSV
As one whom his mother comforts, so I will comfort you; you shall be comforted in Jerusalem.

It should be noted that Paul consistently sends greetings in his letters ‘from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ’, typical is 1 Corinthians:

1 Corinthians 1:3 RSV
Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

2 Corinthians 1:2 RSV
Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Philemon 3 RSV
Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

The holy spirit is not included as a third person, did Paul consistently forget ‘him’?

 

Summary
We have seen from the New Testament scriptures the holy spirit presented as the Father’s presence in power and action indwelling Jesus and believers as His children, evidenced in works and prophecies. New Testament writers often refer to prophecies in the Hebrew scriptures, given under the inspiration of the same ‘spirit of God’. So we see the same spirit presence of God in the NT as we saw in the OT, however we see something new and different. We also see this indwelling providing comfort and counselling, as well as guidance and even words when necessary, and as we shall see next time, a deeper more intimate personal relationship with both the Father and Jesus the Messiah.

 

 

Who or What is the Holy Spirit?

Considering what John the Baptist said:

Matthew 3:11-12 RSV
11 “I baptise you with water for repentance, but he who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry; he will baptise you with the Holy Spirit and with fire. 12 His winnowing fork is in his hand, and he will clear his threshing floor and gather his wheat into the granary, but the chaff he will burn with unquenchable fire.”

Knowing the truth about the holy spirit ought to be a key concern for all true believers. And yet there are a variety of views regarding the true nature of the holy spirit. So as usual we will turn to God’s word in the scriptures to determine the truth, and rely upon the holy spirit:

John 14:26 NIV
But the Advocate, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you.

There is a lot to cover on this subject, so we will start by looking at what the Hebrew scriptures tell us in this part, followed by subsequent parts looking at the teaching in the New Testament scriptures, and then we will pull it all together.

The first mention of God’s spirit is in Genesis 1:2 ‘moving’ in the creation setting.

Genesis 1:2 RSV
The earth was without form and void, and darkness was upon the face of the deep; and the Spirit of God was moving over the face of the waters.

The Hebrew word translated ‘spirit’ is Strong’s number 7307, defined as ‘breath, wind, spirit’. Whether breath, wind or spirit, they are invisible, their power and effect is as a result of their movement or flowing action.

Can we take ‘God’s spirit’ to be ‘the holy spirit’? Is God holy?

Leviticus 19:2 NJB
‘Speak to the whole community of Israelites and say: “Be holy, for I, Yahweh your God, am holy.

Psalms 99:9 NJB
Yahweh our God, bow down at his holy mountain; holy is Yahweh our God!

Habakkuk 1:12 HCSB
Are You not from eternity, Yahweh my God? My Holy One, You will not die. Lord, You appointed them to execute judgment; [my] Rock, You destined them to punish [us].

Is God spirit?

John 4:24 RSV
God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”

Yahweh God is both holy and spirit, hence ‘God’s spirit’ or ‘the spirit of God’ are terms equivalent to ‘the holy spirit’ and are related directly to Yahweh, the Father, Lord God most high.

Are ‘your holy spirit’ and ‘your presence’ used as parallel equivalents, strongly and directly related?

Psalm 139:7 HCSB
Where can I go to escape Your Spirit? Where can I flee from Your presence?

Psalm 51:11 HCSB
Do not banish me from Your presence or take Your Holy Spirit from me.

Was Yahweh’s presence, also called His holy spirit and His spirit, present in the midst of His people Israel?

Isaiah 63:8-14 NJB
63:8 For he said, ‘Truly they are my people, children who will not betray me,’ and he became their Saviour.
63:9 In all their troubles, it was no messenger or angel but his presence that saved them. In his love and pity he himself redeemed them, lifted them up and carried them throughout the days of old.
63:10 But they rebelled and vexed his holy Spirit. Then he became their enemy and himself waged war on them.
63:11 But he called the past to mind, Moses his servant. Where is he who saved them from the sea, the Shepherd of his flock? Where was he who put his holy Spirit among them,
63:12 whose glorious arm led the way by Moses’ right hand? Who divided the waters before them to win himself everlasting renown,
63:13 who led them through the depths as easily as a horse through the desert? They stumbled as little
63:14 as cattle going down to the plain. Yahweh’s Spirit led them to rest. This was how you guided your people to win yourself glorious renown.

Did the glorious presence of Yahweh fill the tabernacle, or dwelling in the midst of the people of Israel?

Exodus 40:34-38 NJB
40:34 The cloud then covered the Tent of Meeting and the glory of Yahweh filled the Dwelling.
40:35 Moses could not enter the Tent of Meeting, since the cloud stayed over it and the glory of Yahweh filled the Dwelling.
40:36 At every stage of their journey, whenever the cloud rose from the Dwelling, the Israelites would resume their march.
40:37 If the cloud did not rise, they would not resume their march until the day it did rise.
40:38 For Yahweh’s cloud stayed over the Dwelling during the daytime and there was fire inside the cloud at night, for the whole House of Israel to see, at every stage of their journey.

So we can see that one aspect of the holy spirit is it relating to ‘the glorious, holy presence of Yahweh’ dwelling in the midst of His people.

Does the ‘spirit of Yahweh’ also have reference to the mind, understanding, knowledge of Yahweh God?

Isaiah 40:13-14 NJB
13 Who directed the spirit of Yahweh, what counsellor could have instructed him?
14 Whom has he consulted to enlighten him, to instruct him in the path of judgement, to teach him knowledge and show him how to understand?

Is this confirmed in the prophecy regarding the Messiah in Isaiah 11?

Isaiah 11:1-2 NJB
1 A shoot will spring from the stock of Jesse, a new shoot will grow from his roots.
2 On him will rest the spirit of Yahweh, the spirit of wisdom and insight, the spirit of counsel and power, the spirit of knowledge and fear of

Does the spirit of Yahweh encompass the spirit of wisdom, of understanding, of counsel, of might, of knowledge and the reverence of Yahweh? Isaiah 11:1-2 above.

So we see that another aspect of the spirit is the indwelling influence of the mind of Yahweh God working with His chosen ones.

Is Yahweh’s spirit also compared to and related to power and might?

Zechariah 4:6 Lexham English Bible
And he answered and said to me, “This [is] the word of Yahweh to Zerubbabel, saying, ‘Not by strength and not by power, but [only] by my Spirit,’ says Yahweh of hosts.

And to Yahweh’s dynamic, active presence to deliver through His chosen agent?

Judges 3:9-10 NJB
9 The Israelites then cried to Yahweh and Yahweh raised for the Israelites a deliverer who rescued them, Othniel son of Kenaz, Caleb’s younger brother.
10 The spirit of Yahweh was on him; he became judge in Israel and set out for war. Yahweh delivered Cushan-Rishathaim king of Edom into his hands, and he triumphed over Cushan- Rishathaim.

Judges 6:34 NJB
And the spirit of Yahweh clothed Gideon around; he sounded the horn and Abiezer rallied behind him.

Judges 13:24-25 NJB
24 The woman gave birth to a son and called him Samson. The child grew, and Yahweh blessed him;
25 and the spirit of Yahweh began to stir him in the Camp of Dan, between Zorah and Eshtaol.

Did this presence and influence sometimes result in prophetic utterances in accordance with the will of Yahweh?

Ezekiel 2:1-2 HCSB
He said to me, “Son of man, stand up on your feet and I will speak with you.” 2 As He spoke to me, the Spirit entered me and set me on my feet, and I listened to the One who was speaking to me.

Ezekiel 11:1 NJB
The spirit lifted me up and brought me to the east gate of the Temple of Yahweh, the gate that looks eastwards. There at the entrance to the gate stood twenty-five men, among whom I saw Jaazaniah son of Azzur and Pelatiah son of Benaiah, leaders of the people.

Ezekiel 11:5 NJB
The spirit of Yahweh fell on me, and he said to me, ‘Say, “Yahweh says this: I know what you are saying, House of Israel, I know how insolent you are.

Prophesying the Messiah and the New Covenant:

Isaiah 61:1-2 NJB
61:1 The spirit of Lord Yahweh is on me for Yahweh has anointed me. He has sent me to bring the news to the afflicted, to soothe the broken-hearted,
61:2 to proclaim liberty to captives, release to those in prison, to proclaim a year of favour from Yahweh and a day of vengeance for our God, to comfort all who mourn

Ezekiel 11:5 NJB
The spirit of Yahweh fell on me, and he said to me, ‘Say, “Yahweh says this: I know what you are saying, House of Israel, I know how insolent you are.

Ezekiel 36:25-27 NJB
I shall pour clean water over you and you will be cleansed; I shall cleanse you of all your filth and of all your foul idols.
26 I shall give you a new heart, and put a new spirit in you; I shall remove the heart of stone from your bodies and give you a heart of flesh instead.
27 I shall put my spirit in you, and make you keep my laws, and respect and practise my judgements

Power, justice and might to declare Yahweh’s truth:

2 Samuel 23:1-4 NJB
These are the last words of David: Thus speaks David son of Jesse, thus speaks the man raised to eminence, the anointed of the God of Jacob, the singer of the songs of Israel:
2 The spirit of Yahweh speaks through me, his word is on my tongue;
3 the God of Jacob has spoken, the Rock of Israel has said to me: He whose rule is upright on earth, who rules in the fear of God,
4 is like the morning light at sunrise (on a cloudless morning) making the grass of the earth sparkle after rain.

Summary
We can see from the above review of the Hebrew scriptures relating to the spirit of Yahweh, or the holy spirit, that rather than being another person distinct from Yahweh it describes the creative, dynamic, active presence and influence of the glorious Yahweh God in and upon and with His chosen people.

This agrees very nicely with the Jewish view that the spirit of God alludes to His energy and self expression in word and action.
In the next part we will look at the holy spirit in the New Testament scriptures.

How was Jesus the son of God?

Last time we saw that Jesus the Messiah (Christ) was prophesied to be a man, was born a man, died a man, was resurrected as a man, ascended to Yahweh’s throne as a man, is still a man, and will return at his second coming as a man. A very unique, perfect, sinless man, glorified and honoured by Yahweh, God our Father, above all others – but man nevertheless.
If Jesus is a man as the scriptures say, how can he be ‘son of God’?
Was there a specific moment in time when Jesus became Yahweh’s son – ‘son of God’?

Psalms 2:7 Lexham English Bible
I will tell the decree; Yahweh said to me: “You are my son; today I have begotten you.

Yahweh says ‘today’ I have ‘begotten’ you, the Hebrew word in Strong’s is No. 3205 and means ‘to bear, bring forth, beget, father’.

Was Mary told ahead of time how this would happen?

Luke 1:31-35 RSV
31 And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. 32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there will be no end.” 34 And Mary said to the angel, “How shall this be, since I have no husband?” 35 And the angel said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God.

Was Mary to ‘conceive in her womb’?

Verse 31 above.

Was this to be by ‘the power of the Most High’ – Yahweh God?

Verse 35 above.

Was this the very reason, ‘therefore’, that Jesus will be called ‘the son of God’?

Verse 35 above.

Was Jesus born like any other man, a human child?

Verse 35 above.

So we see that the primary and unique reason Jesus is ‘the son of God’ is because God miraculously conceived him in Mary’s womb, becoming his father in that process.

Was Adam also called ‘the son of God’, though not conceived by God in a woman’s womb, but created by God?

Luke 3:38 RSV
the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.

There is also a secondary reason – that of ‘position’, or ‘agent’ of God, representing God with God’s authority in certain circumstances. This can be seen with others, and is therefore not unique.

Were the angels called ‘sons of God’?

Job 1:6 NJB
One day when the sons of God came to attend on Yahweh, among them came Satan

Job 38:7 RSV
when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

Was Israel called ‘the son of God’?

Exodus 4:22-23 NJB
You will then say to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh says: Israel is my first-born son.
23  I told you: Let my son go and worship me; but since you refuse to let him go, well then! I shall put your first-born son to death

Ephraim was also called ‘son of God’.

Jeremiah 31:9 NRSV
With weeping they shall come, and with consolations I will lead them back, I will let them walk by brooks of water, in a straight path in which they shall not stumble; for I have become a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn.

Jeremiah 31:20 NJB
Is Ephraim, then, so dear a son to me, a child so favoured, that whenever I mention him I remember him lovingly still? That is why I yearn for him, why I must take pity on him, Yahweh declares.

Was Solomon also called God’s son?

2 Samuel 7:14 RSV
I will be his father, and he shall be my son. When he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men;

1 Chronicles 28:6 RSV
He said to me, ‘It is Solomon your son who shall build my house and my courts, for I have chosen him to be my son, and I will be his father.

Are we not all called the children, or sons of God?

Romans 8:14 RSV
For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.

Matthew 5:9 RSV
“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.

1 John 3:1-2 RSV
1 See what love the Father has given us, that we should be called children of God; and so we are. The reason why the world does not know us is that it did not know him.
2Beloved, we are God’s children now; it does not yet appear what we shall be, but we know that when he appears we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is.

Philippians 2:15 RSV
that you may be blameless and innocent, children of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world,

John 1:12 RSV
But to all who received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God;

Galatians 3:26 RSV
for in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God, through faith.

If we are true Christians with God’s spirit in us then we are God’s (Yahweh’s) children – not because we were physically conceived by God as Jesus was, but because of God’s spirit in us and our ‘position’ in Christ.

Was Jesus also declared to be ‘the son of God’ in power by his resurrection?

Romans 1:4 RSV
and designated Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,

Acts 13:33 RSV
this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus; as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘Thou art my Son, today I have begotten thee.

Hebrews 5:5 RSV
this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus; as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘Thou art my Son, today I have begotten thee.’

Please note that there were no capital letters in the original text ‘the Son of God’ and ‘Son’ are a choice of the translators.

Summary
We have seen that many are called sons of God in the scriptures – Adam who was created by God, angels also created by God, Solomon, Ephraim and the nation Israel because of their position as God’s agents with His authority in specific circumstances.
All true Christians are called sons or children of God, because of our position and relationship with Him.
However, Jesus is uniquely ‘the son of God’- conceived by Yahweh his Father in Mary’s womb, acting with God’s authority as His Messiah agent, and declared so with power by his resurrection.

Really knowing the true Messiah

Do we really know the true Messiah, Jesus the Christ, the son God? If we want to know the truth regarding who Jesus is, how and where can we discover this? Who will reveal it to us?

Matt 16: 15-17 NASB

‭‭‬‬“He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” And Jesus said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.”
‭‭
So if we earnestly desire to know the true Jesus then we can expect the Father to reveal him to us if we diligently search His scriptures and listen to what He tells us.
Last time we found that the priests and people of Jesus time did not expect a ‘suffering servant Messiah’ at his first coming, and had not understood that many of the scriptures had described this initial appearing. We also saw that he was ‘the lamb of God’ sacrificed to take away our sin, and that the ‘Passover Lamb’ was to be spotless and without blemish – Jesus never sinned, but died on the cross for our sins, so that we may be saved.

Does Peter confirm this?

1 Pet 1:18-19 NASB
“knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.”

1 Pet 3:18 NASB
“For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;”


‭‭Was the Father reconciling the world to Himself through Jesus sacrifice?
‬‬

2 Cor 5:18-19 NASB
“Now all these things are from God, who reconciled us to Himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation, namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and He has committed to us the word of reconciliation.”

‭‭Let us look at what the Hebrew scriptures said about Messiah (Christ) Jesus in advance. Would Yahweh raise him up to be a prophet like Moses, from among their brethren, who you must listen to?‬‬

Deuteronomy 18:15 NJB
Yahweh your God will raise up a prophet like me; you will listen to him.

Does Hebrews confirm that he was like his brethren ‘in every respect’?

Hebrews 2:17 NASB
“Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.”
‭‭‬‬
Was the Messiah to be a man?

Isa 53:3 NJB
he was despised, the lowest of men, a man of sorrows, familiar with suffering, one from whom, as it were, we averted our gaze, despised, for whom we had no regard.

Jeremiah 33:15-17 RSV
15 In those days and at that time I will cause a righteous Branch to spring forth for David; and he shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.
16 In those days Judah will be saved and Jerusalem will dwell securely. And this is the name by which it will be called: ‘The LORD is our righteousness.’
17 “For thus says the LORD: David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel,

Daniel 7:13 NJB
I was gazing into the visions of the night, when I saw, coming on the clouds of heaven, as it were a son of man. He came to the One most venerable and was led into his presence.

Is ‘son of man’ another way of expressing and equivalent to ‘man’?

Numbers 23:19 RSV
God is not man, that he should lie, or a son of man, that he should repent. Has he said, and will he not do it? Or has he spoken, and will he not fulfil it

Psalms 8:4 NASB
“What is man that You take thought of him, And the son of man that You care for him?”


‭‭
Psalms 80:17 NASB ‬‬
“Let Your hand be upon the man of Your right hand, Upon the son of man whom You made strong for Yourself.”
‭‭‬

Was Ezekiel continuously referred to as ‘son of man’, meaning man?

Ezekiel 2:1 NASB
“Then He said to me, “Son of man, stand on your feet that I may speak with you!”

(You may also look up 3:1, 4, 10, 4:1, 5:1, 6:1 etc etc throughout the book)

Ezekiel 3:1 NASB
“Then He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you find; eat this scroll, and go, speak to the house of Israel.””

‭‭Ezekiel 3:4 NASB‬‬
“Then He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you find; eat this scroll, and go, speak to the house of Israel.

Ezekiel 3:10 NASB
Then He said to me, “Son of man, go to the house of Israel and speak with My words to them.”

‭‭Ezekiel 4:1 NASB‬‬
“”Now you son of man, get yourself a brick, place it before you and inscribe a city on it, Jerusalem.”

‭‭Ezekiel 5:1 NASB ‬‬
“”As for you, son of man, take a sharp sword; take and use it as a barber’s razor on your head and beard. Then take scales for weighing and divide the hair.”

‭‭Ezekiel 6:2 NASB‬‬
“”Son of man, set your face toward the mountains of Israel, and prophesy against them
‭‭‬‬
The name ‘Adam’ in Hebrew means ‘man, mankind’ – Strong’s Hebrew Concordance number 120, and is the word translated man throughout the Hebrew scriptures, typically in the phrase ‘son of man’.

Genesis 3:20-21 NASB
“Now the man called his wife’s name Eve, because she was the mother of all the living. The LORD God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and clothed them.”
‭‭‬‬
Did Jesus often refer to himself as ‘the son of man’?

Matthew 11:19 NASB
The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, ‘Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’ Yet wisdom is vindicated by her deeds.””
‭‭‬‬
Mark 14:21 NASB
For the Son of Man is to go just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.””
‭‭‬‬
A few other scriptures for you to look up where Jesus calls himself ‘the son of man’ are: Matthew 26:2, 24, Luke 22:22, Matthew 16:27, Luke 7:34, Matthew 24:30, Mark 2:10, Matthew 9:6, Mark 2:28

Matthew 26:2 NASB
“”You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man is to be handed over for crucifixion.””

Matthew‬ ‭26:24‬ ‭NASB‬‬‬‬
The Son of Man is to go, just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.””
‭‭‬‬
Luke 22:22 NASB
‭‭ “For indeed, the Son of Man is going as it has been determined; but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!””‬‬

‭‭ Matthew 16:27 NASB ‬‬
“For the Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and WILL THEN REPAY EVERY MAN ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS.”

‭‭Luke 7:34 NASB ‬‬
“The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’

‭‭Matthew 24:30 NASB ‬‬
“And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory.”

Mark 2:10 NASB ‭‭‬‬
“But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins” -He said to the paralytic,”

Note: In the original bible text ‘son of man’ has no capital letters, that is a choice of the translators.

Matthew 9:6 NASB
“But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins” -then He said to the paralytic, “Get up, pick up your bed and go home.””

‭‭Mark 2:28 NASB ‬‬
So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.””

Did Jesus say he was a man?

John 8:40 NASB
“But as it is, you are seeking to kill Me, a man who has told you the truth, which I heard from God; this Abraham did not do.”
‭‭‬‬
Mark‬ ‭14:62‬ ‭NASB‬‬ ‬‬
“And Jesus said, “I am; and you shall see THE SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING WITH THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN.””
‭‭‬‬
John the Baptist said Jesus was a man:

John 1:29-30 NASB
“The next day he saw Jesus coming to him and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! This is He on behalf of whom I said, ‘After me comes a Man who has a higher rank than I, for He existed before me.’”
‭‭‬‬
The people who followed him said he was a man and agreeing with John:

John 10:40-41 NASB
“And He went away again beyond the Jordan to the place where John was first baptizing, and He was staying there. Many came to Him and were saying, “While John performed no sign, yet everything John said about this man was true.””

Did Peter confirm Jesus was a man?

Acts2:22 NASB
“”Men of Israel, listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst, just as you yourselves know-”
‭‭ ‬‬
Did even the High Priest say Jesus was a man?

John 11:49-52 NASB
“But one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, “You know nothing at all, nor do you take into account that it is expedient for you that one man die for the people, and that the whole nation not perish.” Now he did not say this on his own initiative, but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the nation, and not for the nation only, but in order that He might also gather together into one the children of God who are scattered abroad.”
‭‭‬‬
Was Jesus resurrected as a ‘flesh and bones’ man:

Luke 24:36-43 NASB
“While they were telling these things, He Himself stood in their midst and said to them, “Peace be to you.” But they were startled and frightened and thought that they were seeing a spirit. And He said to them, “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; touch Me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have.” And when He had said this, He showed them His hands and His feet. While they still could not believe it because of their joy and amazement, He said to them, “Have you anything here to eat?” They gave Him a piece of a broiled fish; and He took it and ate it before them.”
‭‭ ‬‬
Verse 39 above says a spirit does not have flesh and bones. Is God spirit?

John4:24 NASB
“God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth.””
‭‭‬‬
After Jesus’ ascension into heaven is he still called a man?

1 Timothy 2:3-6 NASB
“This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth. For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself as a ransom for all, the testimony given at the proper time.”

1 Corinthians 15:21-22 NASB
“For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.”
‭‭‬‬
Romans 5:15-17 NASB
“But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. The gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand the judgment arose from one transgression resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the free gift arose from many transgressions resulting in justification. For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.”
‭‭‬‬
Acts 17:31 RSV
because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all men by raising him from the dead.

‭Will Jesus return at his second coming in power as ‘the son of man’?

Matthew 24:30 NASB
“And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory.”
‭‭‬‬
Mark 13:26 NASB
Then they will see THE SON OF MAN COMING IN CLOUDS with great power and glory.”
‭‬
Luke 18:8 NASB
“I tell you that He will bring about justice for them quickly. However, when the Son of Man comes, will He find faith on the earth?””

‭‭Summary‬‬
We have seen from the scriptures above that Jesus Messiah (Christ) was prophesied to come as a man, came as a man as witnessed by John the Baptist, the High Priest, his disciples, and the people who followed him. He was resurrected as a ‘flesh and bones’ man, and after his ascension into heaven he is still referred to as a man. We have also seen that when Jesus returns at his second coming in power and glory he will still be ‘the son of man’.
Jesus was the perfect sinless man who died as our Passover Lamb, by which the Father, Yahweh God, was reconciling us to Himself.

Messiah’s (Christ’s) First Coming

Had the Hebrew scriptures been veiled from the people until this time?

2 Corinthians 3:14-15 NKJV
But their minds were blinded. For until this day the same veil remains unlifted in the reading of the Old Testament, because the veil is taken away in Christ. But even to this day, when Moses is read, a veil lies on their heart.”

How is that veil removed?
‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
2 Corinthians 3:16 NKJV
Nevertheless when one turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away.”
‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
Isaiah 7:14 wasn’t understood before but is recorded in Matthew 1:21-23 as being fulfilled. Was it a sign from Yahweh Himself?

Matthew 1:22-23 NASB
“Now all this took place to fulfil what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet: “BEHOLD, THE VIRGIN SHALL BE WITH CHILD AND SHALL BEAR A SON, AND THEY SHALL CALL HIS NAME IMMANUEL,” which translated means, “GOD WITH US.”

Isaiah 7:14 NASB
“Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel.”


‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
Many Hebrew scriptures that were not understood as Messianic prophecies before these times are identified as being fulfilled by events in Jesus’ life and ministry. Let us look at a few of these.

Jesus, son of Yahweh, (typified by Israel in Exodus) is brought out of Egypt:

Exodus 4:22 NJB
You will then say to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh says: Israel is my first-born son.

Matthew‬ 2:15‬ NASB‬‬ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“He remained there until the death of Herod. This was to fulfill what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet: “OUT OF EGYPT I CALLED MY SON.“”

‬Hosea‬ 11:1‬ NASB‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“When Israel was a youth I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son.”

The Jews didn’t recognise the killing of the male children as fulfilling prophecy:

Matthew 2:16-18 NASB‬
“Then when Herod saw that he had been tricked by the magi, he became very enraged, and sent and slew all the male children who were in Bethlehem and all its vicinity, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had determined from the magi. Then what had been spoken through Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: “A VOICE WAS HEARD IN RAMAH, WEEPING AND GREAT MOURNING, RACHEL WEEPING FOR HER CHILDREN; AND SHE REFUSED TO BE COMFORTED, BECAUSE THEY WERE NO MORE.””
‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
Jeremiah 31:15 NJB
Yahweh says this: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamenting and weeping bitterly: it is Rachel weeping for her children, refusing to be comforted for her children, because they are no more.

Again, they did not expect Messiah (Christ) to come from Galilee. Although Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea he was brought up in Nazareth in Galilee

John‬ 7:41-42‬ NASB‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“Others were saying, “This is the Christ.” Still others were saying, “Surely the Christ is not going to come from Galilee, is He? Has not the Scripture said that the Christ comes from the descendants of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was?””
‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
Matthew‬ 2:23‬ NASB‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“and came and lived in a city called Nazareth. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophets: “He shall be called a Nazarene.”
‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
Did Jesus’ parables fulfil scripture?

Matthew‬ 13:34-35‬ NASB‬‬ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“All these things Jesus spoke to the crowds in parables, and He did not speak to them without a parable. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet: “I WILL OPEN MY MOUTH IN PARABLES; I WILL UTTER THINGS HIDDEN SINCE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD.””
‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Psalms78:14NASB‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“Listen, O my people, to my instruction; Incline your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in a parable; I will utter dark sayings of old, Which we have heard and known, And our fathers have told us. We will not conceal them from their children, But tell to the generation to come the praises of the LORD, And His strength and His wondrous works that He has done.”
‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

They certainly didn’t expect the Messiah (Christ) to be rejected, but he was!

Matthew 21:42 NASB
“Jesus said to them, “Did you never read in the Scriptures, ‘THE STONE WHICH THE BUILDERS REJECTED, THIS BECAME THE CHIEF CORNER stone; THIS CAME ABOUT FROM THE LORD, AND IT IS MARVELOUS IN OUR EYES ‘?”
‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
Psalms 118:22-23 NJB
The stone which the builders rejected has become the cornerstone;
This is Yahweh’s doing, and we marvel at it
.

Who was he talking about?

Matthew 21:45 NASB
“When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard His parables, they understood that He was speaking about them.”
‬‬
Jesus understood he was going to the Father from Dan 7:13

John 14:12 NASB
“Truly, truly, I say to you, he who believes in Me, the works that I do, he will do also; and greater works than these he will do; because I go to the Father.”
‬‬‬‬
Daniel 7:13 NASB
“”I kept looking in the night visions, And behold, with the clouds of heaven One like a Son of Man was coming, And He came up to the Ancient of Days And was presented before Him.”
‬‬‬‬
This was also a surprise to everyone, especially the circumstances of it. However, Jesus expected to be struck down and the flock scattered and he quoted Zechariah 13:7 regarding it.

Matthew 26:31 NASB
“Then Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away because of Me this night, for it is written, ‘I WILL STRIKE DOWN THE SHEPHERD, AND THE SHEEP OF THE FLOCK SHALL BE SCATTERED.’”
‬‬‬‬
Zechariah 13:7 NASB
“”Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, And against the man, My Associate,” Declares the LORD of hosts. “Strike the Shepherd that the sheep may be scattered; And I will turn My hand against the little ones.”
‬‬‬‬
Jesus also recognised the bronze serpent that Moses was instructed to put up on a pole in the wilderness as foreshadowing his own crucifixion. Nobody else saw this coming.

Numbers 21:4-9 NJB
21:4 They left Mount Hor by the road to the Sea of Suph, to skirt round Edom. On the way the people lost patience.
21:5 They spoke against God and against Moses, ‘Why did you bring us out of Egypt to die in the desert? For there is neither food nor water here; we are sick of this meagre diet.’
21:6 At this, God sent fiery serpents among the people; their bite brought death to many in Israel.
21:7 The people came and said to Moses, ‘We have sinned by speaking against Yahweh and against you. Intercede for us with Yahweh to save us from these serpents.’ Moses interceded for the people,
21:8 and Yahweh replied, ‘Make a fiery serpent and raise it as a standard. Anyone who is bitten and looks at it will survive.’
21:9 Moses then made a serpent out of bronze and raised it as a standard, and anyone who was bitten by a serpent and looked at the bronze serpent survived
.

John 3:14 NASB
“As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up;”
‬‬‬‬

John 12:32-33 NASB
“And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to Myself.” But He was saying this to indicate the kind of death by which He was to die.”
‬‬‬‬
Notice also that Jesus refers to himself very often as ‘the son of man’, we will look at why this is important in future articles

Did Jesus know he was going to be betrayed?

John 13:18 NASB
“I do not speak of all of you. I know the ones I have chosen; but it is that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘HE WHO EATS MY BREAD HAS LIFTED UP HIS HEEL AGAINST ME.’”
‬‬‬‬
He was quoting Psalms 41:9

Psalms 41:9 NASB
“Even my close friend in whom I trusted, Who ate my bread, Has lifted up his heel against me.”
‬‬‬‬
Did the Chief Priests who bribed Judas understand this? No! By doing it they were contributing to rejecting the Messiah they were waiting for.
After his resurrection Jesus spent time with his disciples showing them he was alive with many proofs and expounding the scriptures and their meaning to them.

Acts 1:1-3 NASB
“The first account I composed, Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach, until the day when He was taken up to heaven, after He had by the Holy Spirit given orders to the apostles whom He had chosen. To these He also presented Himself alive after His suffering, by many convincing proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days and speaking of the things concerning the kingdom of God.”
‬‬‬‬
Were they able to clearly preach this truth of the ‘suffering servant’ Messiah, under the power of the spirit on the Day of Pentecost? Read all of Acts chapter 2, particularly verse 36

Acts 2:36 NASB
“Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ-this Jesus whom you crucified.””
‬‬
But why did Jesus have to suffer and die in this way?
Was this the Father’s will to bring about the salvation of the world?

1 John 4:14 NASB
“We have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world.”
‬‬
John 4: 42 NASB
“and they were saying to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves and know that this One is indeed the Saviour of the world.””
‬‬
How was this accomplished? Was Jesus ‘the Lamb of God’?

John 1:29 NASB
“The next day he saw Jesus coming to him and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!”
‬‬
John 3:16-17 NASB
“”For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him.
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Did the people expect this of their Messiah – to die as their Passover Lamb so they could be spared? Was this pictured in the Hebrew scriptures?

Exodus 12:2127 NJB
12:21 Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, ‘Go and choose a lamb or kid for your families, and kill the Passover victim.
12:22 Then take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and with the blood from the basin touch the lintel and both door-posts; then let none of you venture out of the house till morning.
12:23 Then, when Yahweh goes through Egypt to strike it, and sees the blood on the lintel and on both door-posts, he will pass over the door and not allow the Destroyer to enter your homes and strike.
12:24 You will observe this as a decree binding you and your children for all time,
12:25 and when you have entered the country which Yahweh will give you, as he has promised, you will observe this ritual.
12:26 And when your children ask you, “What does this ritual mean?”
12:27 you will tell them, “It is the Passover sacrifice in honour of Yahweh who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, and struck Egypt but spared our houses.” ‘ And the people bowed in worship.

1 Corinthians 5:7 NASB
Clean out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed.
‬‬
Did this seal the new covenant?

1 Corinthians 11:23-26 NASB
“For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread; and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”
For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes
.”
‬‬
Matt 26:26-29 NASB
“While they were eating, Jesus took some bread, and after a blessing, He broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is My body.” And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you; for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom.””
(Also Mk 14:22-24, and Lk 22:19-22, if you wish to look them up

Was the new covenant expected? Should it have been?

Jeremiah 31:31 NJB
31:31 ‘Look, the days are coming, Yahweh declares, when I shall make a new covenant with the House of Israel (and the House of Judah),

We are redeemed by the Father with Messiah’s blood. Was Jesus the perfect lamb? Did the Father raise him from the dead and glorify him?

1 Peter 1:17-21 NASB
“If you address as Father the One who impartially judges according to each one’s work, conduct yourselves in fear during the time of your stay on earth; knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ. For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world, but has appeared in these last times for the sake of you who through Him are believers in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.”
‬‬
Summary
The priests and people of Jesus time did not expect a ‘suffering servant Messiah’ at his first coming, and had not understood that many of the scriptures had described this initial appearing.
We will look into this a little more next time.

What kind of Messiah did the people expect?

In Palestine at the time of Jesus there was a great expectation amongst the people regarding ‘the coming Messiah’, as prophesied in many Hebrew scriptures. At that time various leaders had arisen and had proven to be false, with their followers falling away , see for example:

Acts 5:35-40 NASB
“For some time ago Theudas rose up, claiming to be somebody, and a group of about four hundred men joined up with him. But he was killed, and all who followed him were dispersed and came to nothing. After this man, Judas of Galilee rose up in the days of the census and drew away some people after him; he too perished, and all those who followed him were scattered. So in the present case, I say to you, stay away from these men and let them alone, for if this plan or action is of men, it will be overthrown; but if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow them; or else you may even be found fighting against God.” They took his advice; and after calling the apostles in, they flogged them and ordered them not to speak in the name of Jesus, and then released them.”
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Looking at Psalm 2, a Messianic Psalm, did the people expect ‘the Lord’s anointed’ to be a victorious king breaking to pieces their enemies like pottery with an iron rod?

Psalms 2:2 NJB
Kings of the earth take up position, princes plot together against Yahweh and his anointed

Psalms 2:6 NJB

‘I myself have anointed my king on Zion my holy mountain.

Psalms 2:8-9 NJB
2:8 Ask of me, and I shall give you the nations as your birthright, the whole wide world as your possession.
2:9 With an iron sceptre you will break them, shatter them like so many pots

And also

Psalms 45:2-7 NJB
45:2 Of all men you are the most handsome, gracefulness is a dew upon your lips, for God has blessed you for ever.
45:3 Warrior, strap your sword at your side, in your majesty and splendour advance,
45:4 ride on in the cause of truth, gentleness and uprightness. Stretch the bowstring tight, lending terror to your right hand.
45:5 Your arrows are sharp, nations lie at your mercy, the king’s enemies lose heart.
45:6 Your throne is from God, for ever and ever, the sceptre of your kingship a sceptre of justice,
45:7 you love uprightness and detest evil. This is why God, your God, has anointed you with oil of gladness, as none of your rivals,

Was the Messiah to be a mighty king, ruling on the throne of David?

Isaiah 9:5-6 NJB
9:5 For a son has been born for us, a son has been given to us, and dominion has been laid on his shoulders; and this is the name he has been given, ‘Wonder-Counsellor, Mighty-God, Eternal-Father, Prince-of-Peace’
9:6 to extend his dominion in boundless peace, over the throne of David and over his kingdom to make it secure and sustain it in fair judgement and integrity. From this time onwards and for ever, the jealous love of Yahweh Sabaoth will do this

No wonder the people were excited about this Messiah King and his coming kingdom to Israel when they read Isaiah 11

Isaiah 11:1-16 NJB
11:1 A shoot will spring from the stock of Jesse, a new shoot will grow from his roots.
11:2 On him will rest the spirit of Yahweh, the spirit of wisdom and insight, the spirit of counsel and power, the spirit of knowledge and fear of Yahweh:
11:3 his inspiration will lie in fearing Yahweh. His judgement will not be by appearances. his verdict not given on hearsay.
11:4 He will judge the weak with integrity and give fair sentence for the humblest in the land. He will strike the country with the rod of his mouth and with the breath of his lips bring death to the wicked.
11:5 Uprightness will be the belt around his waist, and constancy the belt about his hips.
11:6 The wolf will live with the lamb, the panther lie down with the kid, calf, lion and fat-stock beast together, with a little boy to lead them.
11:7 The cow and the bear will graze, their young will lie down together. The lion will eat hay like the ox.
11:8 The infant will play over the den of the adder; the baby will put his hand into the viper’s lair.
11:9 No hurt, no harm will be done on all my holy mountain, for the country will be full of knowledge of Yahweh as the waters cover the sea.
11:10 That day, the root of Jesse, standing as a signal for the peoples, will be sought out by the nations and its home will be glorious.
11:11 When that day comes, the Lord will raise his hand a second time to ransom the remnant of his people, those still left, from Assyria, from Egypt, from Pathros, Cush and Elam, from Shinar, Hamath and the islands of the Sea.
11:12 He will hoist a signal for the nations and assemble the outcasts of Israel; he will gather the scattered people of Judah from the four corners of the earth.
11:13 Then Ephraim’s jealousy will cease and Judah’s enemies be suppressed; Ephraim will no longer be jealous of Judah nor Judah any longer hostile to Ephraim,
11:14 but together they will swoop on the Philistines’ back, to the west, and together pillage the people of the east. Edom and Moab will be subject to their sway and the Ammonites will obey them.
11:15 Then Yahweh will dry up the gulf of the Sea of Egypt, he will raise his hand against the River with the heat of his breath. He will divide it into seven streams for them to cross dry-shod.
11:16 And there will be a highway for the remnant of his people for those still left, from Assyria, as there was for Israel when he came out of Egypt.

And when they read Psalms 72, especially verses 9-14, did they want to see this victorious king come in their time?

Psalms 72:9-14 NJB
72:9 The Beast will cower before him, his enemies lick the dust;
72:10 the kings of Tarshish and the islands will pay him tribute. The kings of Sheba and Saba will offer gifts;
72:11 all kings will do him homage, all nations become his servants.
72:12 For he rescues the needy who calls to him, and the poor who has no one to help.
72:13 He has pity on the weak and the needy, and saves the needy from death.
72:14 From oppression and violence he redeems their lives, their blood is precious in his sight.

When they heard Jesus and saw his miracles did they welcome him joyously as the son of David, the Messiah

Matthew 21:8-9 NASB
“Most of the crowd spread their coats in the road, and others were cutting branches from the trees and spreading them in the road. The crowds going ahead of Him, and those who followed, were shouting, “Hosanna to the Son of David; BLESSED IS HE WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD; Hosanna in the highest!””
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Luke 19:38 NASB
“shouting: “BLESSED IS THE KING WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD; Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!”
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Did they want to make Jesus king by force?

John 6:15 NASB
“So Jesus, perceiving that they were intending to come and take Him by force to make Him king, withdrew again to the mountain by Himself alone.
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What was Jesus reaction to this? Same verse. Why? He had not come to be king at this time, he had come for another reason, which he tried to spell out to his disciples.
What was the reaction of Jesus’ disciples when he told them he must suffer and die? Did they expect this

Luke 9:44-45 NASB
“”Let these words sink into your ears; for the Son of Man is going to be delivered into the hands of men.” But they did not understand this statement, and it was concealed from them so that they would not perceive it; and they were afraid to ask Him about this statement.

Matt 16:21-22 NASB
“From that time Jesus began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day. Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, “God forbid it, Lord! This shall never happen to You.””
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Matt 16:21-22 NASB
“From that time Jesus began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day. Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, “God forbid it, Lord! This shall never happen to You.””
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Luke 18:31-34 NASB
They were not expecting the Messiah to come first as ‘the suffering servant’ and then subsequently as ‘the conquering king’ at his ‘second coming’.

After his crucifixion did Jesus explain it to two of his followers on the road to Emmaus? See Luke 24:13-35, particularly v27.

Luke‬ ‭24:13-33, 35-37‬ ‭NASB‬‬‬‬
‭‭ “And behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was about seven miles from Jerusalem. And they were talking with each other about all these things which had taken place. While they were talking and discussing, Jesus Himself approached and began traveling with them. But their eyes were prevented from recognizing Him. And He said to them, “What are these words that you are exchanging with one another as you are walking?” And they stood still, looking sad. One of them, named Cleopas, answered and said to Him, “Are You the only one visiting Jerusalem and unaware of the things which have happened here in these days?” And He said to them, “What things?” And they said to Him, “The things about Jesus the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word in the sight of God and all the people, and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered Him to the sentence of death, and crucified Him. But we were hoping that it was He who was going to redeem Israel. Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day since these things happened. But also some women among us amazed us. When they were at the tomb early in the morning, and did not find His body, they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels who said that He was alive. Some of those who were with us went to the tomb and found it just exactly as the women also had said; but Him they did not see.” And He said to them, “O foolish men and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! Was it not necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and to enter into His glory?” Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures. And they approached the village where they were going, and He acted as though He were going farther. But they urged Him, saying, “Stay with us, for it is getting toward evening, and the day is now nearly over.” So He went in to stay with them. When He had reclined at the table with them, He took the bread and blessed it, and breaking it, He began giving it to them. Then their eyes were opened and they recognized Him; and He vanished from their sight. They said to one another, “Were not our hearts burning within us while He was speaking to us on the road, while He was explaining the Scriptures to us?” And they got up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, and found gathered together the eleven and those who were with them,‬‬
They began to relate their experiences on the road and how He was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. While they were telling these things, He Himself stood in their midst and said to them, “Peace be to you.” But they were startled and frightened and thought that they were seeing a spirit.

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Luke 24:27 NASB
“Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures.
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After Jesus resurrection did they start to understand what the scriptures said about him?

Lk 24:44-45 NASB
“Now He said to them, “These are My words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.”
and He said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead the third day,

‭‭‬‬
Just before Jesus’ ascension were his followers still expecting the restoration of the kingdom to Israel?

Acts 1:6 NASB
“So when they had come together, they were asking Him, saying, “Lord, is it at this time You are restoring the kingdom to Israel?””
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Summary

We have seen that at the time of Jesus the people expected a victorious conquering king Messiah who would vanquish their enemies and restore the kingdom to Israel there and then, with all the blessings and benefits that would entail. They had not understood that he had to come first as ‘the suffering servant’ Messiah.
Next time we will look at the Messiah’s first coming, as the ‘suffering servant’.

Who was Jesus

Who is Jesus ?

When he was asked by Jesus, who did Peter say that Jesus was?

Matt 16:16 NASB
“Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.””
‭‭Peter equates ‘the Christ’ (Messiah) with ‘the son of the living God’. Did the high priest also equate the Messiah with being the son of God?‬‬

Matthew 26:63 NASB
“But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest said to Him, “I adjure You by the living God, that You tell us whether You are the Christ, the Son of God.”

Who did Martha say Jesus was?
‭‭
John 11:27 NASB
“She said to Him, “Yes, Lord; I have believed that You are the Christ, the Son of God, even He who comes into the world.””

Did even the demons witness to who Jesus was?

Luke 4:41 NASB
“Demons also were coming out of many, shouting, “You are the Son of God!” But rebuking them, He would not allow them to speak, because they knew Him to be the Christ.”
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Why were all the ‘signs that Jesus did’ recorded?

John 20:31 NASB
“but these have been written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.”

Did Jesus ever confirm that he was the Messiah?

John 4:24-25 NASB
“God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth” The woman said to Him, “I know that Messiah is coming (He who is called Christ); when that One comes, He will declare all things to us.”

In the Hebrew scriptures ‘the Messiah’ means ‘the anointed one’. In the New Testament ‘Messiah (Christ)’ and ‘son of God’ often appear together as synonymous titles, as we have seen in the examples above. Psalm 2 is an important scripture relating Yahweh’s anointed (Messiah), with ‘my son’ and also with ‘my king’, as we can see below:

Psalms 2 NJB
2:1 Why this uproar among the nations, this impotent muttering of the peoples?
2:2 Kings of the earth take up position, princes plot together against Yahweh and his anointed,
2:3 ‘Now let us break their fetters! Now let us throw off their bonds!’
2:4 He who is enthroned in the heavens laughs, Yahweh makes a mockery of them,
2:5 then in his anger rebukes them, in his rage he strikes them with terror.
2:6 ‘I myself have anointed my king on Zion my holy mountain.’
2:7 I will proclaim the decree of Yahweh: He said to me, ‘You are my son, today have I fathered you.
2:8 Ask of me, and I shall give you the nations as your birthright, the whole wide world as your possession.
2:9 With an iron sceptre you will break them, shatter them like so many pots.’
2:10 So now, you kings, come to your senses, you earthly rulers, learn your lesson!
2:11 In fear be submissive to Yahweh;
2:12 with trembling kiss his feet, lest he be angry and your way come to nothing, for his fury flares up in a moment. How blessed are all who take refuge in him!

This scripture is often referenced and quoted from by the New Testament writers showing this application to Jesus the Christ (Messiah).

Acts 4:25-28 quotes Psalms 2:1-2
“who by the Holy Spirit, through the mouth of our father David Your servant, said, ‘WHY DID THE GENTILES RAGE, AND THE PEOPLES DEVISE FUTILE THINGS? ‘THE KINGS OF THE EARTH TOOK THEIR STAND, AND THE RULERS WERE GATHERED TOGETHER AGAINST THE LORD AND AGAINST HIS CHRIST.’ For truly in this city there were gathered together against Your holy servant Jesus, whom You anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, to do whatever Your hand and Your purpose predestined to occur.”

Revelation 11:18 NASB references Psalms 2:1
“And the nations were enraged, and Your wrath came, and the time came for the dead to be judged, and the time to reward Your bond-servants the prophets and the saints and those who fear Your name, the small and the great, and to destroy those who destroy the earth.”‭‭‬‬

Acts 13:32-33 , Hebrews 1:5 and 5:5 quote Ps 2:7

Acts 13:32-33 NASB
“And we preach to you the good news of the promise made to the fathers, that God has fulfilled this promise to our children in that He raised up Jesus, as it is also written in the second Psalm, ‘YOU ARE MY SON; TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU.’”

Hebrews 1:5 NASB‬‬
“For to which of the angels did He ever say, “YOU ARE MY SON, TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU “? And again, “I WILL BE A FATHER TO HIM AND HE SHALL BE A SON TO ME “?”

‭‭Hebrews 5:5 NASB‬‬
“So also Christ did not glorify Himself so as to become a high priest, but He who said to Him, “YOU ARE MY SON, TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU “;”
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Revelation 2:26-27 and 12:5 quote Psalms 2:8-9

Revelation‬ ‭2:26-27‬ ‭NASB‬‬‬‬
He who overcomes, and he who keeps My deeds until the end, TO HIM I WILL GIVE AUTHORITY OVER THE NATIONS; AND HE SHALL RULE THEM WITH A ROD OF IRON, AS THE VESSELS OF THE POTTER ARE BROKEN TO PIECES, as I also have received authority from My Father;”

Revelation 12:5 NASB
“And she gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron; and her child was caught up to God and to His throne.”

Revelation 19:15 quotes Ps 2:9
From His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may strike down the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty.”
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Did the Father ever give testimony as to who Jesus is?
When he was baptised by John (again referenced to Ps 2:7)

Matthew 3:17 NASB
and behold, a voice out of the heavens said, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.”
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At the transfiguration again, this time with an added instruction

Mark 9:7 NASB
“Then a cloud formed, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, “This is My beloved Son, listen to Him!“”
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The Messiah is also referred to as ‘son of David’

Matthew 1:1 NASB
The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham:
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Matthew 22:42 NASB
“”What do you think about the Christ, whose son is He?” They said to Him, ” The son of David.“”
‭‭‬‬
Were Peter and the other disciples inspired to clearly witness to Jesus being the Messiah on the day of Pentecost in Acts chapter 2? Particularly see verse 36.

Acts 2:36 NASB
“Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ-this Jesus whom you crucified.“”

Summary

From examining the scriptures above we have seen that Jesus was clearly identified as the Messiah (Christ), also referred to as ‘son of God’, ‘son of the living God’, and ‘son of David’. On two occasions a voice from heaven witnessed that ‘this is my beloved son’, the second time saying ‘listen to him’.

Next time we will look at what was expected of the Messiah.

Who is the God of Jesus

 


When Jesus was asked which was the most important commandment in Mk 12:29 (NASB)

‭‭‬‬‬‬“Jesus answered, “The foremost is, ‘HEAR, O ISRAEL! THE LORD OUR GOD IS ONE LORD

He answered by quoting the ’Shema’ Deuteronomy 6:4 (Rotherham Emphasised bible)

Hear, O Israel: Yahweh, is our God,—Yahweh alone.

Which identifies his god to be Yahweh, the God of Israel, as we saw last time. This is not surprising considering that he was a Jew from Galilee.
How else is Yahweh referred to, Isaiah 64:7 NJB (other translations Isaiah 64:8)

And yet, Yahweh, you are our Father; we the clay and you our potter, all of us are the work of your hands.

He is called ‘Father’

See also Jeremiah 31:9 NJB

In tears they will return, in prayer I shall lead them. I shall guide them to streams of water, by a smooth path where they will not stumble. For I am a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my first-born son.

And Malachi 1:6 NJB
‘The son honours his father, the slave stands in awe of his master. But if I am indeed father, where is the honour due to me? And if I am indeed master, where is the awe due to me? says Yahweh Sabaoth to you priests who despise my name.

Isaiah 63:16 NJB
After all, you are our Father. If Abraham will not own us, if Israel will not acknowledge us, you, Yahweh, are our Father, ‘Our Redeemer’ is your name from of old.

Jesus constantly prayed to Yahweh and addressed Him as Father

John 12:28 NASB
“Father, glorify Your name.” Then a voice came out of heaven: “I have both glorified it, and will glorify it again.””

John 17:1 NASB
“Jesus spoke these things; and lifting up His eyes to heaven, He said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify Your Son, that the Son may glorify You,

and throughout chapter 17
Jesus told parables referring to the Father

John 15:1 NASB
“”I am the true vine, and My Father is the vinedresser.

Jesus taught his disciples to pray to ‘Our Father’

‭‭‬‬Matthew 6:9 NASB
“”Pray, then, in this way: ‘Our Father who is in heaven, Hallowed be Your name.”
‭‭‬‬‬‬
What did Jesus tell the woman at the well?

John 4:20-24 NASB
“Our fathers worshiped in this mountain, and you people say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.” Jesus said to her, “Woman, believe Me, an hour is coming when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. But an hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth; for such people the Father seeks to be His worshipers. God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth.””
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Jesus came preaching and doing works in the name and authority of the Father

John 5:43 NASB
“I have come in My Father’s name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, you will receive him.”
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John 10:25 NASB
“Jesus answered them, “I told you, and you do not believe; the works that I do in My Father’s name, these testify of Me.
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John 12:13 NASB
“took the branches of the palm trees and went out to meet Him, and began to shout, “Hosanna! BLESSED IS HE WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD, even the King of Israel.””
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Is the Father greater than Jesus?

John 14:28 NASB
“You heard that I said to you, ‘I go away, and I will come to you.’ If you loved Me, you would have rejoiced because I go to the Father, for the Father is greater than I.”
‭ ‬
The risen Jesus clearly called the Father “My God” – and your (our) God and Father

John 20:17 NASB
“Jesus said to her, “Stop clinging to Me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to My brethren and say to them, ‘I ascend to My Father and your Father, and My God and your God.'””
‭‬
The Father is still the God of Jesus after he ascended to the Father’s throne.

Romans 15:6 NASB
“so that with one accord you may with one voice glorify the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

2 Corinthians 1:3 NASB
“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort,

Ephesians 1:3 NASB
“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed us with every spiritual blessing in the heavenly places in Christ,”

Ephesians 1:17 NASB
“that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom and of revelation in the knowledge of Him.”

Jesus still has a God, the Father, in the book of Revelation

Revelation 1:6 NASB
“and He has made us to be a kingdom, priests to His God and Father-to Him be the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen.”
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Revelation 3:2 NASB
“Wake up, and strengthen the things that remain, which were about to die; for I have not found your deeds completed in the sight of My God.”
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Rev 3:12 NASB
“He who overcomes, I will make him a pillar in the temple of My God, and he will not go out from it anymore; and I will write on him the name of My God, and the name of the city of My God, the new Jerusalem, which comes down out of heaven from My God, and My new name.”
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 Summary

So we have seen clearly from scripture that Jesus worshipped, prayed to and preached about his God and Father Yahweh, and taught us to do likewise. He tells us to worship our Father in spirit and in truth, for these are the ones whom the Father seeks to worship Him.

Who does the God of the bible say he is?

God, in the bible, reveals Himself explicitly with copious, unambiguous statements. Some of these are:
• God is one
• God is holy
• God is almighty
• God is creator of all that exists
• God cannot die
• God is all knowing
• God cannot lie
• God is not a human being
• God is good
• God is love

I am on a voyage of discovery of what the bible actually says and not what human beings say. My intention is to let the bible speak for itself.

For reasons of clarity, I am quoting scripture from the “New Jerusalem Bible” (unless otherwise stated) which translates the Hebrew name “YHWH” as “Yahweh”, which in many English translations is translated as “LORD”.

I have discovered the following.

There is only one God

1Kings 8:60

so that all the peoples of the earth may come to know that Yahweh is God indeed and that there is no other

Deuteronomy 6:4 Rotherham Emphasised bible

Here, O Israel: Yahweh, is our God,—Yahweh alone.

2 Sam 7:22

That is why you are great, Lord Yahweh; there is no one like you, no God but you alone, as everything that we have heard confirm

Deuteronomy 4:39-40

4:39 ‘Hence, grasp this today and meditate on it carefully: Yahweh is the true God, in heaven above as on earth beneath, he and no other.
4:40 Keep his laws and commandments as I give them to you today, so that you and your children after you may prosper and live long in the country that Yahweh your God is giving you for ever.’

Isaiah 45:5

I am Yahweh, and there is no other, there is no other God except me. Though you do not know me, I have armed you

45:6 so that it may be known from east to west that there is no one except me. I am Yahweh, and there is no other

Exodus 15:11

Yahweh, who is like you, majestic in sanctity, who like you among the holy ones, fearsome of deed, worker of wonders?

God is holy

Psalm 99

99:3 let them praise your name, great and awesome; holy is he
99:4 and mighty! You are a king who loves justice, you established honesty, justice and uprightness; in Jacob it is you who are active.
99:9 Exalt Yahweh our God, bow down at his holy mountain; holy is Yahweh our God

Hosea 11:9

I will not give rein to my fierce anger, I will not destroy Ephraim again, for I am God, not man, the Holy One in your midst, and I shall not come to you in anger

Exodus 15:10-11

Thou didst blow with thy wind they were covered by the sea,—They rolled like lead, into the waters so wide. Who is, like unto thee, among the mighty O Yahweh? 11 Who is, like unto thee, Majestic in holiness,—To be revered in praises, Doing a marvellous thing?

Revelation 4:8 BBE (The bible in basicEnglish)

And the four beasts, having every one of them six wings, are full of eyes round about and inside: and without resting day and night, they say, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God, Ruler of all, who was and is and is to come.

Revelation‬ ‭15:4‬ ‭NASB‬‬

“”Who will not fear, O Lord, and glorify Your name? For You alone are holy; For ALL THE NATIONS WILL COME AND WORSHIP BEFORE Y OU, F OR Y OUR RIGHTEOUS ACTS HAVE BEEN REVEALED.””
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Habakkuk 1:13

Your eyes are too pure to rest on evil, you cannot look on at oppression. Why do you look on at those who play the traitor, why say nothing while the wicked swallows someone more upright than himself?

Isaiah 6:3

and they were shouting these words to each other: Holy, holy, holy is Yahweh Sabaoth. His glory fills the whole earth.

Psalm 89:35

I have sworn by my holiness, once and for all, never will I break faith with David.

Psalm30:4

Make music for Yahweh, all you who are faithful to him, praise his unforgettable holiness.

1 Peter 1:16 NASB

“because it is written, “YOU SHALL BE HOLY, FOR I AM HOLY.””
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God is Almighty

Genesis 17:1 NASB

“Now when Abram was ninety-nine years old, the LORD appeared to Abram and said to him, “I am God Almighty; Walk before Me, and be blameless.

Job 42:1

This was the answer Job gave to Yahweh:
42:2 I know that you are all-powerful: what you conceive, you can perform.

Psalm 33:6

By the word of Yahweh the heavens were made, by the breath of his mouth all their array.

Psalm 99:2

Yahweh is great in Zion. He is supreme over all nations;

Daniel 2:20

This is what Daniel said: May the name of God be blessed for ever and ever, since wisdom and power are his alone.
2:21 It is he who controls the procession of times and seasons, who makes and unmakes kings, who confers wisdom on the wise, and knowledge on those with discernment,

John 19:11

“Jesus answered, “The only power you have over me is the power given to you by God. So the one who handed me over to you is guilty of a greater sin.””

Revelation 15:3

They sang the song of Moses, the servant of God, and the song of the Lamb: “Great and wonderful are the things you do, Lord God All-Powerful. Right and true are your ways, Ruler of the nations.

Psalm 4:1

Bless Yahweh, my soul, Yahweh, my God, how great you are! Clothed in majesty and splendour,

Psalms 104:2

wearing the light as a robe! You stretch out the heavens like a tent

Psalm 135:6-7

Yahweh does whatever he pleases in heaven, on earth, in the waters and all the depths. He summons up clouds from the borders of earth, sends rain with lightning-flashes, and brings the wind out of his storehouse.

1 Chronicles 29:11-12

Wealth and riches come from you, you are ruler of all, in your hand lie strength and power, and you bestow greatness and might on whomsoever you please.
In the Hebrew Scriptures God reveals himself to us as the creator of all that exist.

God created all things

Isaiah 17:7

That day, a man will look to his Creator and his eyes will turn to the Holy One of Israel
He created the whole earth

Isa 40:28

Did you not know? Had you not heard? Yahweh is the everlasting God, he created the remotest parts of the earth. He does not grow tired or weary, his understanding is beyond fathoming

 

The subject of all Psalm 102 is Yahweh NJB

Yahweh laid the foundations of the earth

102:25 Long ago you laid earth’s foundations, the heavens are the work of your hands.
102:26 They pass away but you remain; they all wear out like a garment, like outworn clothes you…..

Isaiah 42:5

Thus says God, Yahweh, who created the heavens and spread them out, who hammered into shape the earth and what comes from it, who gave breath to the people on it, and spirit to those who walk on it:

Isaiah 48:13

My hand laid the foundations of earth and my right hand spread out the heavens. I summon them and they all present themselves together

Isaiah  51:13

You forget about Yahweh your Creator who spread out the heavens and laid the earth’s foundations; you have never stopped trembling all day long before the fury of the oppressor when he was bent on destruction. Where is the oppressor’s fury now

Jeremiah 32:17

“Ah, Lord Yahweh, you made the heavens and the earth by your great power and outstretched arm. To you nothing is impossible.

Zechariah 12:1

A proclamation. The word of Yahweh about Israel (and also about Judah). Yahweh, who spread out the heaven and founded the earth and formed the human spirit within, declares

Isaiah 45:11-12

Thus says Yahweh, the Holy One of Israel and his Maker: I am asked for signs regarding my sons, I am given orders about the work I do.
45:12 It was I who made the earth and I created human beings on it, mine were the hands that spread out the heavens and I have given the orders to all their array.

Isaiah 45:18

For thus says Yahweh, the Creator of the heavens — he is God, who shaped the earth and made it, who set it firm; he did not create it to be chaos, he formed it to be lived in: I am Yahweh, and there is no other.

God cannot die

1Tim 6:16 ERV
God is the only one who never dies. He lives in light so bright that people cannot go near it. No one has ever seen him; no one is able to see him. All honour and power belong to him forever. Ame

God doesn’t change

Psalm 102:26

They pass away but you remain; they all wear out like a garment, like outworn clothes you change them;
102:27 but you never alter, and your years never end.

Hebrews 1:10 ESV

And, “You, Lord, laid the foundation of the earth in the beginning, and the heavens are the work of your hands; 11 they will perish, but you remain; they will all wear out like a garment, 12 like a robe you will roll them up, like a garment they will be changed. But you are the same, and your years will have no end.”

1 Timothy 1:17 ERV

“Honor and glory to the King who rules forever. He cannot be destroyed and cannot be seen. Honor and glory forever and ever to the only God. Amen.”

God is all knowing

Psalm 139:2-4

A word is not yet on my tongue before you, Yahweh, know all about it

Psalms 147:5
Great is our Lord and abundant in strength; His understanding is infinite.

Isaiah 46:9

Remember the things that happened long ago, for I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is none like me.
46:10 From the beginning I revealed the future, in advance, what has not yet occurred. I say: My purpose will come about, I shall do whatever I please;

1 Chronicles 28:9

‘And you, Solomon my son, know the God of your father and serve him with an undivided heart and willing mind; for Yahweh scrutinises all hearts and understands whatever plans they may devise. If you seek him, he will let you find him; but forsake him and he will cast you off for ever

Ezekiel 11:5

The spirit of Yahweh fell on me, and he said to me, ‘Say, “Yahweh says this: I know what you are saying, House of Israel, I know how insolent you are.

Hebrews‬ ‭4:13‬ ‭NASB‬‬

“And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are open and laid bare to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do.”
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God cannot lie

1 Samuel 15:29

(The Glory of Israel, however, does not lie or go back on his word, not being human and liable to go back on his word.)

Numbers 23:17

So Balaam went to him and found him still standing beside his burnt offering and all the chiefs of Moab with him. ‘What did Yahweh say?’ Balak said to him.

23:18 Balaam then declaimed his poem, as follows: Stand up, Balak, and listen, give ear to me, son of Zippor.

23:19 God is no human being that he should lie, no child of Adam to change his mind. Is it his to say and not to do, is it his to speak and not fulfil

Hebrews 6:18 ESV

“so that by two unchangeable things, in which it is impossible for God to lie, we who have fled for refuge might have strong encouragement to hold fast to the hope set before us.”

Titus 1:2 NASB

“in the hope of eternal life, which God, who cannot lie, promised long ages ago,

God is faithful

Deuteronomy 7:9

From this you can see that Yahweh your God is the true God, the faithful God who, though he is true to his covenant and his faithful love for a thousand generations as regards those who love him and keep his commandments,

2Timothy 2:13 NASB

“If we are faithless, He remains faithful, for He cannot deny Himself.”
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Lamentations 3:22 23

Surely Yahweh’s mercies are not over, his deeds of faithful love not exhausted;
3:23 every morning they are renewed; great is his faithfulnes

Hebrews 10:23 NASB

“Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for He who promised is faithful;”
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Psalms‬ ‭119:138‬ ‭NASB

“You have commanded Your testimonies in righteousness And exceeding faithfulness.”
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1 Corinthians‬ ‭1:9‬ ‭NASB‬‬

“God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.”
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1 Thessalonians‬ ‭5:24‬ ‭NASB‬‬
“Faithful is He who calls you, and He also will bring it to pass.”
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God is not a human being nor is he a son of man

1 Samuel15:28

and Samuel said to him, ‘Today Yahweh has torn the kingdom of Israel from you and given it to a neighbour of yours who is better than you.’

15:29 (The Glory of Israel, however, does not lie or go back on his word, not being human and liable to go back on his word.)
15:30 ‘I have sinned,’ Saul said, ‘but please still show me respect in front of my people’s elders and in front of Israel, and come back with me, so that I can worship Yahweh your God.

Numbers 23:19 NRSV

God is not a human being, that he should lie, or a mortal, that he should change his mind. Has he promised, and will he not do it? Has he spoken, and will he not fulfill it
Hosea 11:9

I will not give rein to my fierce anger, I will not destroy Ephraim again, for I am God, not man, the Holy One in your midst, and I shall not come to you in anger.

 God is good

Psalms‬ ‭52:1‬ ‭NASB‬‬

“Why do you boast in evil, O mighty man? The lovingkindness of God endures all day long.”
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Psalms‬ ‭119:68‬ ‭NASB‬‬

“You are good and do good; Teach me Your statutes.”
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Nahum‬ ‭1:7‬ ‭NASB‬‬

“The LORD is good, A stronghold in the day of trouble, And He knows those who take refuge in Him.”

‭‭ Romans‬ ‭2:4‬ ‭KJV‬‬

“Or despisest thou the riches of his goodness and forbearance and longsuffering; not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?”
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God is Love

1 John‬ ‭4:8‬ ‭NASB

“The one who does not love does not know God, for God is love.”
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Ephesians‬ ‭2:4‬ ‭NASB‬‬

“But God, being rich in mercy, because of His great love with which He loved us,”
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John‬ ‭3:16‬ ‭NASB‬‬

“”For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life.”
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Deuteronomy 7:7-8
‘Yahweh set his heart on you and chose you not because you were the most numerous of all peoples — for indeed you were the smallest of all-
7:8 but because he loved you and meant to keep the oath which he swore to your ancestors: that was why Yahweh brought you out with his mighty hand and redeemed you from the place of slave-labour, from the power of Pharaoh king of Egypt.

Summary

I found in my voyage of discovery of the bible that Yahweh is the only true God – there are no others. Yahweh is holy, the creator of everything that exist, he is Almighty, all knowing, he cannot lie and is present everywhere. Yahweh is not a human being, he cannot die, he is faithful and he is love.

Yahweh promises that He will let you find Him if ….

1 Chronicles 28:9

28:9 ‘And you, Solomon my son, know the God of your father and serve him with an undivided heart and willing mind; for Yahweh scrutinises all hearts and understands whatever plans they may devise. If you seek him, he will let you find him; but forsake him and he will cast you off for ever.