Yahweh’s Covenant with David

After Saul’s failure to serve as king in the way God desired, the scriptures tells us that God sought “a man after His own heart” (1 Samuel 13:14). This was David (Acts 13:22). Now David was far from perfect, he made some very serious mistakes – however, when he saw his sins he always repented and looked to God for forgiveness (Psalms 51). David is characterised by his great zeal for the living Yahweh God. As a result Yahweh made a distinct and separate covenant with David – an unconditional covenant, which we will look at in this study.

Do the scriptures confirm God made a covenant with David?

2 Chronicles 13:5 WEB
Ought you not to know that Yahweh, the God of Israel, gave the kingdom over Israel to David forever, even to him and to his sons by a covenant of salt?

2 Chronicles 21:7 WEB
However Yahweh would not destroy the house of David, because of the covenant that he had made with David, and as he promised to give a lamp to him and to his children always.

Notice that like the preserving properties of salt, a covenant of salt was one that would last. God guaranteed that the “house of David”—his descendants—would continue to exist forever.

We see in 2 Samuel chapter 7 (and we encourage our readers to read all of this in their own bibles) David desired greatly to build a house for God and discussed this with Nathan the prophet. What was Yahweh’s response to David through Nathan?

2 Samuel 7:10-17 WEB
I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and will plant them, that they may dwell in their own place, and be moved no more; neither shall the children of wickedness afflict them any more, as at the first,
11 and [as] from the day that I commanded judges to be over my people Israel; and I will cause you to rest from all your enemies. Moreover Yahweh tells you that Yahweh will make you a house.
12 When your days are fulfilled, and you shall sleep with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who shall proceed out of your bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.
13 He shall build a house for my name, and I will establish the throne of his kingdom forever.
14 I will be his father, and he shall be my son: if he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with the stripes of the children of men;
15 but my loving kindness shall not depart from him, as I took it from Saul, whom I put away before you.
16 Your house and your kingdom shall be made sure for ever before you: your throne shall be established forever.
17 According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so did Nathan speak to David.

Let us notice some important points in the scripture above:
Firstly, God re-affirms in verse 10 the promise of the land given in the covenants with Abraham and then through Moses, ‘they shall dwell in their own place’ – land.

Next God promises that David’s son (Solomon) would succeed him as king and that it is him that would build the temple for God’s Presence/Name – verses 12 and 13.

We see in verses 13 and 16 that this promise is expanded to include an everlasting kingdom – another son (descendent) of David’s would rule forever and build a lasting temple for God – the coming Messiah Jesus (Matthew 21:9). In this instance ‘your seed’ points to both Solomon building the physical temple (house) and also Messiah who will build a lasting spiritual temple and rule forever.

Notice verses 14 and 15, this covenant does not rely upon David’s descendants keeping God’s commandments – if they ‘commit iniquity’ He will chasten them, but not reject them as He did Saul. We know that Messiah was sinless, but all the others were not.

This relies purely on Yahweh’s faithfulness to His covenant promise.

Psalms 89:3-4 WEB
“I have made a covenant with my chosen one, I have sworn to David, my servant,
4 ‘I will establish your seed forever, And build up your throne to all generations.'” Selah.

Psalms 89:28-37 WEB
I will keep my loving kindness for him forevermore. My covenant will stand firm with him.
29 I will also make his seed endure forever, And his throne as the days of heaven.
30 If his children forsake my law, And don’t walk in my ordinances;
31 If they break my statutes, And don’t keep my commandments;
32 Then I will punish their sin with the rod, And their iniquity with stripes.
33 But I will not completely take my loving kindness from him, Nor allow my faithfulness to fail.
34 I will not break my covenant, Nor alter what my lips have uttered.
35 Once have I sworn by my holiness, I will not lie to David.
36 His seed will endure forever, His throne like the sun before me.
37 It will be established forever like the moon, The faithful witness in the sky.” Selah.

Do we see various prophecies pointing to Messiah Jesus as the descendent of David who will rule God’s kingdom forever, fulfilling God’s promises given in this covenant?

Isaiah 9:7 WEB
Of the increase of his government and of peace there shall be no end, on the throne of David, and on his kingdom, to establish it, and to uphold it with justice and with righteousness from henceforth even forever. The zeal of Yahweh of Hosts will perform this.

Isaiah 11:1-2 WEB
There shall come forth a shoot out of the stock of Jesse, and a branch out of his roots shall bear fruit.
2 The Spirit of Yahweh shall rest on him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of Yahweh.

Jeremiah 23:5 WEB
Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will raise to David a righteous Branch, and he shall reign as king and deal wisely, and shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.

Jeremiah 33:14-21 WEB
Behold, the days come, says Yahweh, that I will perform that good word which I have spoken concerning the house of Israel and concerning the house of Judah.
15 In those days, and at that time, will I cause a Branch of righteousness to grow up to David; and he shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.
16 In those days shall Judah be saved, and Jerusalem shall dwell safely; and this is [the name] by which she shall be called: Yahweh our righteousness.
17 For thus says Yahweh: David shall never want a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel;
18 neither shall the priests the Levites want a man before me to offer burnt offerings, and to burn meal-offerings, and to do sacrifice continually.
19 The word of Yahweh came to Jeremiah, saying,
20 Thus says Yahweh: If you can break my covenant of the day, and my covenant of the night, so that there shall not be day and night in their season;
21 then may also my covenant be broken with David my servant, that he shall not have a son to reign on his throne; and with the Levites the priests, my ministers.

What was Mary told regarding Jesus before his birth?

Luke 1:31-33 NRSV
And now, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you will name him Jesus.
32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High, and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his ancestor David.
33 He will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.”

Did the people celebrate Jesus as ‘the son of David’ – the promised Messiah?

Matthew 21:6-11 NRSV
The disciples went and did as Jesus had directed them;
7 they brought the donkey and the colt, and put their cloaks on them, and he sat on them.
8 A very large crowd spread their cloaks on the road, and others cut branches from the trees and spread them on the road.
9 The crowds that went ahead of him and that followed were shouting, “Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is the one who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest heaven!”
10 When he entered Jerusalem, the whole city was in turmoil, asking, “Who is this?”
11 The crowds were saying, “This is the prophet Jesus from Nazareth in Galilee.”

As we understand from previous studies Jesus first coming was as ‘the suffering servant’ and was rejected by the religious authorities, and it will be at his second coming as ‘ruling king’ he will sit on the throne.

So we have seen in this covenant with David the promise that David’s ‘house’, ‘kingdom’, and ‘throne’ will be established forever and is significant because it shows that the Messiah will come from the lineage of David and that He will establish a kingdom over which He will reign. The covenant is summarized by the words ‘house’, promising a dynasty in the lineage of David; ‘kingdom’, referring to a people who are governed by a king in a certain area; ‘throne’, emphasizing the authority of the king’s rule; and ‘forever’, emphasizing the eternal and unconditional nature of this covenant promise to David.

This study shows that Jesus is destined to sit on the throne of David. Although these events are sure to come to pass, many mistakenly believe it has already been fulfilled ‘in Christ’. However, it will not be fulfilled in full until He returns to earth in power and glory, given him by Yahweh our Father God. See our previous studies on Jesus and the Gospel.

Did the 10 Commandments Exist Before The Old Covenant?

Were the ten commandments brought into existence at the time of the making of the old covenant between Yahweh and Israel? Did they come into existence when they were written on tablets of stone on Mount Sinai, or is there evidence in the scriptures to demonstrate that they existed long before that?

When the Israelites were brought out of Egypt but before the cutting of the Old Covenant at Sinai, what were the instructions given them for the gathering of manna?

Exodus 16:4-5 WEB
Then said Yahweh to Moses, “Behold, I will rain bread from the sky for you, and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may test them, whether they will walk in my law, or not.
5 It shall come to pass on the sixth day, that they shall prepare that which they bring in, and it shall be twice as much as they gather daily.”

Exodus 16:22-23 WEB
It happened that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one, and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.
23 He said to them, “This is that which Yahweh has spoken, ‘Tomorrow is a solemn rest, a holy Sabbath to Yahweh. Bake that which you want to bake, and boil that which you want to boil; and all that remains over lay up for yourselves to be kept until the morning.”

Exodus odus 16:26-30 WEB
Six days you shall gather it, but on the seventh day is the Sabbath. In it there shall be none.”
27 It happened on the seventh day, that some of the people went out to gather, and they found none.
28 Yahweh said to Moses, “How long do you refuse to keep my commandments and my laws?
29 Behold, because Yahweh has given you the Sabbath, therefore he gives you on the sixth day the bread of two days. Everyone stay in his place. Let no one go out of his place on the seventh day.”
30 So the people rested on the seventh day.

Already at this time they were expected to keep the seventh day Sabbath, and Yahweh was asking ‘How long do you refuse to keep my commandments and my laws?’

What was Abraham commended for?

Genesis 26:5 WEB
because Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.”

It was more than 430 years before Israel came out of Egypt that Abraham was ‘obeying Yahweh’s voice and keeping His commandments, statutes and laws!

We see in Genesis 35 Jacob ridding his whole household of ‘foreign gods’ in keeping with the first commandment, and also the second regarding idols/graven images:

Genesis 35:1-4 WEB
God said to Jacob, “Arise, go up to Bethel, and live there. Make there an altar to God, who appeared to you when you fled from the face of Esau your brother.”
2 Then Jacob said to his household, and to all who were with him, “Put away the foreign gods that are among you, purify yourselves, change your garments.
3 Let us arise, and go up to Bethel. I will make there an altar to God, who answered me in the day of my distress, and was with me in the way which I went.”
4 They gave to Jacob all the foreign gods which were in their hands, and the rings which were in their ears; and Jacob hid them under the oak which was by Shechem.

Exodus 20:2-4 WEB
“I am Yahweh your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage.
3 You shall have no other gods before me.
4 “You shall not make for yourselves an idol, nor any image of anything that is in the heavens above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth:

Job, who is believed to have lived at the time of Isaac, was also concerned to keep God’s laws and feared his children may have broken the third commandment in their hearts:

Job 1:5 RSV
And when the days of the feast had run their course, Job would send and sanctify them, and he would rise early in the morning and offer burnt offerings according to the number of them all; for Job said, “It may be that my sons have sinned, and cursed God in their hearts.” Thus Job did continually.

Exodus 20:7 WEB
“You shall not take the name of Yahweh your God in vain, for Yahweh will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.

Yahweh blessed and hallowed the seventh day Sabbath during ‘creation week’ by resting on it, the fourth commandment:

Genesis 2:3 WEB
God blessed the seventh day, and made it holy, because he rested in it from all his work which he had created and made.

See also Exodus 16 scriptures above.

Exodus 20:8-10 WEB
“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.
9 You shall labor six days, and do all your work,
10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to Yahweh your God. You shall not do any work in it, you, nor your son, nor your daughter, your man-servant, nor your maid-servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates;

Jacob honoured and respected his father and mother, the fifth commandment :

Genesis 28:6-7 WEB
Now Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob and sent him away to Paddan Aram, to take him a wife from there, and that as he blessed him he gave him a charge, saying, “You shall not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan,”
28:7 and that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Paddan Aram.

Exodus 20:12 WEB
“Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which Yahweh your God gives you.

Cain committed the first murder by killing his brother Abel, thus breaking the sixth commandment:

Genesis 4:6-10 WEB
Yahweh said to Cain, “Why are you angry? Why has the expression of your face fallen?
7 If you do well, will it not be lifted up? If you don’t do well, sin crouches at the door. Its desire is for you, but you are to rule over it.”
8 Cain said to Abel, his brother, “Let’s go into the field.” It happened, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel, his brother, and killed him.

Exodus 20:13 WEB
“You shall not murder.

Genesis 9:5-6 WEB
I will surely require your blood of your lives. At the hand of every animal I will require it. At the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s brother, I will require the life of man.
6 Whoever sheds man’s blood, by man will his blood be shed, for in the image of God made he man.

Joseph knew that adultery was a sin against God and refused to do it when tempted, so avoiding breaking the seventh commandment, whilst Abimelech narrowly avoided it with Sarah:

Genesis 39:7-9 WEB
It happened after these things, that his master’s wife cast her eyes on Joseph; and she said, “Lie with me.”
8 But he refused, and said to his master’s wife, “Behold, my master doesn’t know what is with me in the house, and he has put all that he has into my hand.
9 He isn’t greater in this house than I, neither has he kept back anything from me but you, because you are his wife. How then can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God?”

Genesis 20:2-7 WEB
Abraham said about Sarah his wife, “She is my sister.” Abimelech king of Gerar sent, and took Sarah.
3 But God came to Abimelech in a dream of the night, and said to him, “Behold, you are a dead man, because of the woman whom you have taken. For she is a man’s wife.”
4 Now Abimelech had not come near her. He said, “Lord, will you kill even a righteous nation?
5 Didn’t he tell me, ‘She is my sister?’ She, even she herself said, ‘He is my brother.’ In the integrity of my heart and the innocence of my hands have I done this.”
6 God said to him in the dream, “Yes, I know that in the integrity of your heart you have done this, and I also withheld you from sinning against me. Therefore I didn’t allow you to touch her.
7 Now therefore, restore the man’s wife. For he is a prophet, and he will pray for you, and you will live. If you don’t restore her, know for sure that you will die, you, and all who are yours.”

Exodus 20:14 WEB
”You shall not commit adultery.

Jacob knew all about honesty and stealing and respected the eighth commandment:

Genesis 30:33 WEB
So my righteousness will answer for me hereafter, when you come concerning my hire that is before you. Everyone that is not speckled and spotted among the goats, and black among the sheep, that might be with me, will be counted stolen.”

Exodus 20:15 WEB
“You shall not steal”.

Adam and Eve started the slippery slope of bearing false witness and coveting

Genesis 3:6 WEB
When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit of it, and ate; and she gave some to her husband with her, and he ate.

Genesis 3:9-11 WEB
Yahweh God called to the man, and said to him, “Where are you?”
10 The man said, “I heard your voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself.”
11 God said, “Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?”

Whilst Job again recognised these as breaking the ninth and tenth commandments:

Job 31:5-6 WEB
“If I have walked with falsehood, And my foot has hurried to deceit
6 (Let me be weighed in an even balance, That God may know my integrity);

Job 31:9-11 WEB
“If my heart has been enticed to a woman, And I have laid wait at my neighbor’s door;
10 Then let my wife grind for another, And let others sleep with her.
11 For that would be a heinous crime; Yes, it would be an iniquity to be punished by the judges:

Exodus 20:16-17 WEB
“You shall not give false testimony against your neighbor.
17 “You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, nor his man-servant, nor his maid-servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor’s.”

God’s commandments are based on love and have always been in place for the benefit, blessing and protection of man:

1 John 5:3 NRSV
For the love of God is this, that we obey his commandments. And his commandments are not burdensome,

As we have seen demonstrated and recorded in scripture, all of the ten commandments were in full force and understood well before they were written in stone at the making of the old covenant between Yahweh and Israel. This of course did not prevent Yahweh from making the keeping of them part of the covenant conditions to be met by the nation of Israel – why wouldn’t He build into this most serious of marriage covenant relationships His perfect laws of love? He wanted the very very best for His beloved – and still does today!