How was Jesus the son of God?

Last time we saw that Jesus the Messiah (Christ) was prophesied to be a man, was born a man, died a man, was resurrected as a man, ascended to Yahweh’s throne as a man, is still a man, and will return at his second coming as a man. A very unique, perfect, sinless man, glorified and honoured by Yahweh, God our Father, above all others – but man nevertheless.
If Jesus is a man as the scriptures say, how can he be ‘son of God’?
Was there a specific moment in time when Jesus became Yahweh’s son – ‘son of God’?

Psalms 2:7 Lexham English Bible
I will tell the decree; Yahweh said to me: “You are my son; today I have begotten you.

Yahweh says ‘today’ I have ‘begotten’ you, the Hebrew word in Strong’s is No. 3205 and means ‘to bear, bring forth, beget, father’.

Was Mary told ahead of time how this would happen?

Luke 1:31-35 RSV
31 And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. 32 He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High; and the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, 33 and he will reign over the house of Jacob for ever; and of his kingdom there will be no end.” 34 And Mary said to the angel, “How shall this be, since I have no husband?” 35 And the angel said to her, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy, the Son of God.

Was Mary to ‘conceive in her womb’?

Verse 31 above.

Was this to be by ‘the power of the Most High’ – Yahweh God?

Verse 35 above.

Was this the very reason, ‘therefore’, that Jesus will be called ‘the son of God’?

Verse 35 above.

Was Jesus born like any other man, a human child?

Verse 35 above.

So we see that the primary and unique reason Jesus is ‘the son of God’ is because God miraculously conceived him in Mary’s womb, becoming his father in that process.

Was Adam also called ‘the son of God’, though not conceived by God in a woman’s womb, but created by God?

Luke 3:38 RSV
the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.

There is also a secondary reason – that of ‘position’, or ‘agent’ of God, representing God with God’s authority in certain circumstances. This can be seen with others, and is therefore not unique.

Were the angels called ‘sons of God’?

Job 1:6 NJB
One day when the sons of God came to attend on Yahweh, among them came Satan

Job 38:7 RSV
when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

Was Israel called ‘the son of God’?

Exodus 4:22-23 NJB
You will then say to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh says: Israel is my first-born son.
23  I told you: Let my son go and worship me; but since you refuse to let him go, well then! I shall put your first-born son to death

Ephraim was also called ‘son of God’.

Jeremiah 31:9 NRSV
With weeping they shall come, and with consolations I will lead them back, I will let them walk by brooks of water, in a straight path in which they shall not stumble; for I have become a father to Israel, and Ephraim is my firstborn.

Jeremiah 31:20 NJB
Is Ephraim, then, so dear a son to me, a child so favoured, that whenever I mention him I remember him lovingly still? That is why I yearn for him, why I must take pity on him, Yahweh declares.

Was Solomon also called God’s son?

2 Samuel 7:14 RSV
I will be his father, and he shall be my son. When he commits iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, with the stripes of the sons of men;

1 Chronicles 28:6 RSV
He said to me, ‘It is Solomon your son who shall build my house and my courts, for I have chosen him to be my son, and I will be his father.

Are we not all called the children, or sons of God?

Romans 8:14 RSV
For all who are led by the Spirit of God are sons of God.

Matthew 5:9 RSV
“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.

1 John 3:1-2 RSV
1 See what love the Father has given us, that we should be called children of God; and so we are. The reason why the world does not know us is that it did not know him.
2Beloved, we are God’s children now; it does not yet appear what we shall be, but we know that when he appears we shall be like him, for we shall see him as he is.

Philippians 2:15 RSV
that you may be blameless and innocent, children of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you shine as lights in the world,

John 1:12 RSV
But to all who received him, who believed in his name, he gave power to become children of God;

Galatians 3:26 RSV
for in Christ Jesus you are all sons of God, through faith.

If we are true Christians with God’s spirit in us then we are God’s (Yahweh’s) children – not because we were physically conceived by God as Jesus was, but because of God’s spirit in us and our ‘position’ in Christ.

Was Jesus also declared to be ‘the son of God’ in power by his resurrection?

Romans 1:4 RSV
and designated Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness by his resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord,

Acts 13:33 RSV
this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus; as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘Thou art my Son, today I have begotten thee.

Hebrews 5:5 RSV
this he has fulfilled to us their children by raising Jesus; as also it is written in the second psalm, ‘Thou art my Son, today I have begotten thee.’

Please note that there were no capital letters in the original text ‘the Son of God’ and ‘Son’ are a choice of the translators.

Summary
We have seen that many are called sons of God in the scriptures – Adam who was created by God, angels also created by God, Solomon, Ephraim and the nation Israel because of their position as God’s agents with His authority in specific circumstances.
All true Christians are called sons or children of God, because of our position and relationship with Him.
However, Jesus is uniquely ‘the son of God’- conceived by Yahweh his Father in Mary’s womb, acting with God’s authority as His Messiah agent, and declared so with power by his resurrection.

Really knowing the true Messiah

Do we really know the true Messiah, Jesus the Christ, the son God? If we want to know the truth regarding who Jesus is, how and where can we discover this? Who will reveal it to us?

Matt 16: 15-17 NASB

‭‭‬‬“He said to them, “But who do you say that I am?” Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.” And Jesus said to him, “Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, because flesh and blood did not reveal this to you, but My Father who is in heaven.”
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So if we earnestly desire to know the true Jesus then we can expect the Father to reveal him to us if we diligently search His scriptures and listen to what He tells us.
Last time we found that the priests and people of Jesus time did not expect a ‘suffering servant Messiah’ at his first coming, and had not understood that many of the scriptures had described this initial appearing. We also saw that he was ‘the lamb of God’ sacrificed to take away our sin, and that the ‘Passover Lamb’ was to be spotless and without blemish – Jesus never sinned, but died on the cross for our sins, so that we may be saved.

Does Peter confirm this?

1 Pet 1:18-19 NASB
“knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ.”

1 Pet 3:18 NASB
“For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit;”


‭‭Was the Father reconciling the world to Himself through Jesus sacrifice?
‬‬

2 Cor 5:18-19 NASB
“Now all these things are from God, who reconciled us to Himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation, namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and He has committed to us the word of reconciliation.”

‭‭Let us look at what the Hebrew scriptures said about Messiah (Christ) Jesus in advance. Would Yahweh raise him up to be a prophet like Moses, from among their brethren, who you must listen to?‬‬

Deuteronomy 18:15 NJB
Yahweh your God will raise up a prophet like me; you will listen to him.

Does Hebrews confirm that he was like his brethren ‘in every respect’?

Hebrews 2:17 NASB
“Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.”
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Was the Messiah to be a man?

Isa 53:3 NJB
he was despised, the lowest of men, a man of sorrows, familiar with suffering, one from whom, as it were, we averted our gaze, despised, for whom we had no regard.

Jeremiah 33:15-17 RSV
15 In those days and at that time I will cause a righteous Branch to spring forth for David; and he shall execute justice and righteousness in the land.
16 In those days Judah will be saved and Jerusalem will dwell securely. And this is the name by which it will be called: ‘The LORD is our righteousness.’
17 “For thus says the LORD: David shall never lack a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel,

Daniel 7:13 NJB
I was gazing into the visions of the night, when I saw, coming on the clouds of heaven, as it were a son of man. He came to the One most venerable and was led into his presence.

Is ‘son of man’ another way of expressing and equivalent to ‘man’?

Numbers 23:19 RSV
God is not man, that he should lie, or a son of man, that he should repent. Has he said, and will he not do it? Or has he spoken, and will he not fulfil it

Psalms 8:4 NASB
“What is man that You take thought of him, And the son of man that You care for him?”


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Psalms 80:17 NASB ‬‬
“Let Your hand be upon the man of Your right hand, Upon the son of man whom You made strong for Yourself.”
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Was Ezekiel continuously referred to as ‘son of man’, meaning man?

Ezekiel 2:1 NASB
“Then He said to me, “Son of man, stand on your feet that I may speak with you!”

(You may also look up 3:1, 4, 10, 4:1, 5:1, 6:1 etc etc throughout the book)

Ezekiel 3:1 NASB
“Then He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you find; eat this scroll, and go, speak to the house of Israel.””

‭‭Ezekiel 3:4 NASB‬‬
“Then He said to me, “Son of man, eat what you find; eat this scroll, and go, speak to the house of Israel.

Ezekiel 3:10 NASB
Then He said to me, “Son of man, go to the house of Israel and speak with My words to them.”

‭‭Ezekiel 4:1 NASB‬‬
“”Now you son of man, get yourself a brick, place it before you and inscribe a city on it, Jerusalem.”

‭‭Ezekiel 5:1 NASB ‬‬
“”As for you, son of man, take a sharp sword; take and use it as a barber’s razor on your head and beard. Then take scales for weighing and divide the hair.”

‭‭Ezekiel 6:2 NASB‬‬
“”Son of man, set your face toward the mountains of Israel, and prophesy against them
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The name ‘Adam’ in Hebrew means ‘man, mankind’ – Strong’s Hebrew Concordance number 120, and is the word translated man throughout the Hebrew scriptures, typically in the phrase ‘son of man’.

Genesis 3:20-21 NASB
“Now the man called his wife’s name Eve, because she was the mother of all the living. The LORD God made garments of skin for Adam and his wife, and clothed them.”
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Did Jesus often refer to himself as ‘the son of man’?

Matthew 11:19 NASB
The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, ‘Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’ Yet wisdom is vindicated by her deeds.””
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Mark 14:21 NASB
For the Son of Man is to go just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.””
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A few other scriptures for you to look up where Jesus calls himself ‘the son of man’ are: Matthew 26:2, 24, Luke 22:22, Matthew 16:27, Luke 7:34, Matthew 24:30, Mark 2:10, Matthew 9:6, Mark 2:28

Matthew 26:2 NASB
“”You know that after two days the Passover is coming, and the Son of Man is to be handed over for crucifixion.””

Matthew‬ ‭26:24‬ ‭NASB‬‬‬‬
The Son of Man is to go, just as it is written of Him; but woe to that man by whom the Son of Man is betrayed! It would have been good for that man if he had not been born.””
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Luke 22:22 NASB
‭‭ “For indeed, the Son of Man is going as it has been determined; but woe to that man by whom He is betrayed!””‬‬

‭‭ Matthew 16:27 NASB ‬‬
“For the Son of Man is going to come in the glory of His Father with His angels, and WILL THEN REPAY EVERY MAN ACCORDING TO HIS DEEDS.”

‭‭Luke 7:34 NASB ‬‬
“The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, ‘Behold, a gluttonous man and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners!’

‭‭Matthew 24:30 NASB ‬‬
“And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory.”

Mark 2:10 NASB ‭‭‬‬
“But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins” -He said to the paralytic,”

Note: In the original bible text ‘son of man’ has no capital letters, that is a choice of the translators.

Matthew 9:6 NASB
“But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins” -then He said to the paralytic, “Get up, pick up your bed and go home.””

‭‭Mark 2:28 NASB ‬‬
So the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath.””

Did Jesus say he was a man?

John 8:40 NASB
“But as it is, you are seeking to kill Me, a man who has told you the truth, which I heard from God; this Abraham did not do.”
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Mark‬ ‭14:62‬ ‭NASB‬‬ ‬‬
“And Jesus said, “I am; and you shall see THE SON OF MAN SITTING AT THE RIGHT HAND OF POWER, and COMING WITH THE CLOUDS OF HEAVEN.””
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John the Baptist said Jesus was a man:

John 1:29-30 NASB
“The next day he saw Jesus coming to him and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world! This is He on behalf of whom I said, ‘After me comes a Man who has a higher rank than I, for He existed before me.’”
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The people who followed him said he was a man and agreeing with John:

John 10:40-41 NASB
“And He went away again beyond the Jordan to the place where John was first baptizing, and He was staying there. Many came to Him and were saying, “While John performed no sign, yet everything John said about this man was true.””

Did Peter confirm Jesus was a man?

Acts2:22 NASB
“”Men of Israel, listen to these words: Jesus the Nazarene, a man attested to you by God with miracles and wonders and signs which God performed through Him in your midst, just as you yourselves know-”
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Did even the High Priest say Jesus was a man?

John 11:49-52 NASB
“But one of them, Caiaphas, who was high priest that year, said to them, “You know nothing at all, nor do you take into account that it is expedient for you that one man die for the people, and that the whole nation not perish.” Now he did not say this on his own initiative, but being high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus was going to die for the nation, and not for the nation only, but in order that He might also gather together into one the children of God who are scattered abroad.”
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Was Jesus resurrected as a ‘flesh and bones’ man:

Luke 24:36-43 NASB
“While they were telling these things, He Himself stood in their midst and said to them, “Peace be to you.” But they were startled and frightened and thought that they were seeing a spirit. And He said to them, “Why are you troubled, and why do doubts arise in your hearts? See My hands and My feet, that it is I Myself; touch Me and see, for a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have.” And when He had said this, He showed them His hands and His feet. While they still could not believe it because of their joy and amazement, He said to them, “Have you anything here to eat?” They gave Him a piece of a broiled fish; and He took it and ate it before them.”
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Verse 39 above says a spirit does not have flesh and bones. Is God spirit?

John4:24 NASB
“God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth.””
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After Jesus’ ascension into heaven is he still called a man?

1 Timothy 2:3-6 NASB
“This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Saviour, who desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth. For there is one God, and one mediator also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself as a ransom for all, the testimony given at the proper time.”

1 Corinthians 15:21-22 NASB
“For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive.”
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Romans 5:15-17 NASB
“But the free gift is not like the transgression. For if by the transgression of the one the many died, much more did the grace of God and the gift by the grace of the one Man, Jesus Christ, abound to the many. The gift is not like that which came through the one who sinned; for on the one hand the judgment arose from one transgression resulting in condemnation, but on the other hand the free gift arose from many transgressions resulting in justification. For if by the transgression of the one, death reigned through the one, much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ.”
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Acts 17:31 RSV
because he has fixed a day on which he will judge the world in righteousness by a man whom he has appointed, and of this he has given assurance to all men by raising him from the dead.

‭Will Jesus return at his second coming in power as ‘the son of man’?

Matthew 24:30 NASB
“And then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the SON OF MAN COMING ON THE CLOUDS OF THE SKY with power and great glory.”
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Mark 13:26 NASB
Then they will see THE SON OF MAN COMING IN CLOUDS with great power and glory.”
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Luke 18:8 NASB
“I tell you that He will bring about justice for them quickly. However, when the Son of Man comes, will He find faith on the earth?””

‭‭Summary‬‬
We have seen from the scriptures above that Jesus Messiah (Christ) was prophesied to come as a man, came as a man as witnessed by John the Baptist, the High Priest, his disciples, and the people who followed him. He was resurrected as a ‘flesh and bones’ man, and after his ascension into heaven he is still referred to as a man. We have also seen that when Jesus returns at his second coming in power and glory he will still be ‘the son of man’.
Jesus was the perfect sinless man who died as our Passover Lamb, by which the Father, Yahweh God, was reconciling us to Himself.

Messiah’s (Christ’s) First Coming

Had the Hebrew scriptures been veiled from the people until this time?

2 Corinthians 3:14-15 NKJV
But their minds were blinded. For until this day the same veil remains unlifted in the reading of the Old Testament, because the veil is taken away in Christ. But even to this day, when Moses is read, a veil lies on their heart.”

How is that veil removed?
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2 Corinthians 3:16 NKJV
Nevertheless when one turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away.”
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Isaiah 7:14 wasn’t understood before but is recorded in Matthew 1:21-23 as being fulfilled. Was it a sign from Yahweh Himself?

Matthew 1:22-23 NASB
“Now all this took place to fulfil what was spoken by the Lord through the prophet: “BEHOLD, THE VIRGIN SHALL BE WITH CHILD AND SHALL BEAR A SON, AND THEY SHALL CALL HIS NAME IMMANUEL,” which translated means, “GOD WITH US.”

Isaiah 7:14 NASB
“Therefore the Lord Himself will give you a sign: Behold, a virgin will be with child and bear a son, and she will call His name Immanuel.”


‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
Many Hebrew scriptures that were not understood as Messianic prophecies before these times are identified as being fulfilled by events in Jesus’ life and ministry. Let us look at a few of these.

Jesus, son of Yahweh, (typified by Israel in Exodus) is brought out of Egypt:

Exodus 4:22 NJB
You will then say to Pharaoh, “This is what Yahweh says: Israel is my first-born son.

Matthew‬ 2:15‬ NASB‬‬ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“He remained there until the death of Herod. This was to fulfill what had been spoken by the Lord through the prophet: “OUT OF EGYPT I CALLED MY SON.“”

‬Hosea‬ 11:1‬ NASB‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“When Israel was a youth I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son.”

The Jews didn’t recognise the killing of the male children as fulfilling prophecy:

Matthew 2:16-18 NASB‬
“Then when Herod saw that he had been tricked by the magi, he became very enraged, and sent and slew all the male children who were in Bethlehem and all its vicinity, from two years old and under, according to the time which he had determined from the magi. Then what had been spoken through Jeremiah the prophet was fulfilled: “A VOICE WAS HEARD IN RAMAH, WEEPING AND GREAT MOURNING, RACHEL WEEPING FOR HER CHILDREN; AND SHE REFUSED TO BE COMFORTED, BECAUSE THEY WERE NO MORE.””
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Jeremiah 31:15 NJB
Yahweh says this: A voice is heard in Ramah, lamenting and weeping bitterly: it is Rachel weeping for her children, refusing to be comforted for her children, because they are no more.

Again, they did not expect Messiah (Christ) to come from Galilee. Although Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea he was brought up in Nazareth in Galilee

John‬ 7:41-42‬ NASB‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“Others were saying, “This is the Christ.” Still others were saying, “Surely the Christ is not going to come from Galilee, is He? Has not the Scripture said that the Christ comes from the descendants of David, and from Bethlehem, the village where David was?””
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Matthew‬ 2:23‬ NASB‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“and came and lived in a city called Nazareth. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophets: “He shall be called a Nazarene.”
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Did Jesus’ parables fulfil scripture?

Matthew‬ 13:34-35‬ NASB‬‬ ‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“All these things Jesus spoke to the crowds in parables, and He did not speak to them without a parable. This was to fulfill what was spoken through the prophet: “I WILL OPEN MY MOUTH IN PARABLES; I WILL UTTER THINGS HIDDEN SINCE THE FOUNDATION OF THE WORLD.””
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Psalms78:14NASB‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬
“Listen, O my people, to my instruction; Incline your ears to the words of my mouth. I will open my mouth in a parable; I will utter dark sayings of old, Which we have heard and known, And our fathers have told us. We will not conceal them from their children, But tell to the generation to come the praises of the LORD, And His strength and His wondrous works that He has done.”
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They certainly didn’t expect the Messiah (Christ) to be rejected, but he was!

Matthew 21:42 NASB
“Jesus said to them, “Did you never read in the Scriptures, ‘THE STONE WHICH THE BUILDERS REJECTED, THIS BECAME THE CHIEF CORNER stone; THIS CAME ABOUT FROM THE LORD, AND IT IS MARVELOUS IN OUR EYES ‘?”
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Psalms 118:22-23 NJB
The stone which the builders rejected has become the cornerstone;
This is Yahweh’s doing, and we marvel at it
.

Who was he talking about?

Matthew 21:45 NASB
“When the chief priests and the Pharisees heard His parables, they understood that He was speaking about them.”
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Jesus understood he was going to the Father from Dan 7:13

John 14:12 NASB
“Truly, truly, I say to you, he who believes in Me, the works that I do, he will do also; and greater works than these he will do; because I go to the Father.”
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Daniel 7:13 NASB
“”I kept looking in the night visions, And behold, with the clouds of heaven One like a Son of Man was coming, And He came up to the Ancient of Days And was presented before Him.”
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This was also a surprise to everyone, especially the circumstances of it. However, Jesus expected to be struck down and the flock scattered and he quoted Zechariah 13:7 regarding it.

Matthew 26:31 NASB
“Then Jesus said to them, “You will all fall away because of Me this night, for it is written, ‘I WILL STRIKE DOWN THE SHEPHERD, AND THE SHEEP OF THE FLOCK SHALL BE SCATTERED.’”
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Zechariah 13:7 NASB
“”Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, And against the man, My Associate,” Declares the LORD of hosts. “Strike the Shepherd that the sheep may be scattered; And I will turn My hand against the little ones.”
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Jesus also recognised the bronze serpent that Moses was instructed to put up on a pole in the wilderness as foreshadowing his own crucifixion. Nobody else saw this coming.

Numbers 21:4-9 NJB
21:4 They left Mount Hor by the road to the Sea of Suph, to skirt round Edom. On the way the people lost patience.
21:5 They spoke against God and against Moses, ‘Why did you bring us out of Egypt to die in the desert? For there is neither food nor water here; we are sick of this meagre diet.’
21:6 At this, God sent fiery serpents among the people; their bite brought death to many in Israel.
21:7 The people came and said to Moses, ‘We have sinned by speaking against Yahweh and against you. Intercede for us with Yahweh to save us from these serpents.’ Moses interceded for the people,
21:8 and Yahweh replied, ‘Make a fiery serpent and raise it as a standard. Anyone who is bitten and looks at it will survive.’
21:9 Moses then made a serpent out of bronze and raised it as a standard, and anyone who was bitten by a serpent and looked at the bronze serpent survived
.

John 3:14 NASB
“As Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up;”
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John 12:32-33 NASB
“And I, if I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to Myself.” But He was saying this to indicate the kind of death by which He was to die.”
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Notice also that Jesus refers to himself very often as ‘the son of man’, we will look at why this is important in future articles

Did Jesus know he was going to be betrayed?

John 13:18 NASB
“I do not speak of all of you. I know the ones I have chosen; but it is that the Scripture may be fulfilled, ‘HE WHO EATS MY BREAD HAS LIFTED UP HIS HEEL AGAINST ME.’”
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He was quoting Psalms 41:9

Psalms 41:9 NASB
“Even my close friend in whom I trusted, Who ate my bread, Has lifted up his heel against me.”
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Did the Chief Priests who bribed Judas understand this? No! By doing it they were contributing to rejecting the Messiah they were waiting for.
After his resurrection Jesus spent time with his disciples showing them he was alive with many proofs and expounding the scriptures and their meaning to them.

Acts 1:1-3 NASB
“The first account I composed, Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach, until the day when He was taken up to heaven, after He had by the Holy Spirit given orders to the apostles whom He had chosen. To these He also presented Himself alive after His suffering, by many convincing proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days and speaking of the things concerning the kingdom of God.”
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Were they able to clearly preach this truth of the ‘suffering servant’ Messiah, under the power of the spirit on the Day of Pentecost? Read all of Acts chapter 2, particularly verse 36

Acts 2:36 NASB
“Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ-this Jesus whom you crucified.””
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But why did Jesus have to suffer and die in this way?
Was this the Father’s will to bring about the salvation of the world?

1 John 4:14 NASB
“We have seen and testify that the Father has sent the Son to be the Saviour of the world.”
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John 4: 42 NASB
“and they were saying to the woman, “It is no longer because of what you said that we believe, for we have heard for ourselves and know that this One is indeed the Saviour of the world.””
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How was this accomplished? Was Jesus ‘the Lamb of God’?

John 1:29 NASB
“The next day he saw Jesus coming to him and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world!”
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John 3:16-17 NASB
“”For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish, but have eternal life. For God did not send the Son into the world to judge the world, but that the world might be saved through Him.
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Did the people expect this of their Messiah – to die as their Passover Lamb so they could be spared? Was this pictured in the Hebrew scriptures?

Exodus 12:2127 NJB
12:21 Moses summoned all the elders of Israel and said to them, ‘Go and choose a lamb or kid for your families, and kill the Passover victim.
12:22 Then take a bunch of hyssop, dip it in the blood that is in the basin, and with the blood from the basin touch the lintel and both door-posts; then let none of you venture out of the house till morning.
12:23 Then, when Yahweh goes through Egypt to strike it, and sees the blood on the lintel and on both door-posts, he will pass over the door and not allow the Destroyer to enter your homes and strike.
12:24 You will observe this as a decree binding you and your children for all time,
12:25 and when you have entered the country which Yahweh will give you, as he has promised, you will observe this ritual.
12:26 And when your children ask you, “What does this ritual mean?”
12:27 you will tell them, “It is the Passover sacrifice in honour of Yahweh who passed over the houses of the Israelites in Egypt, and struck Egypt but spared our houses.” ‘ And the people bowed in worship.

1 Corinthians 5:7 NASB
Clean out the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened. For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed.
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Did this seal the new covenant?

1 Corinthians 11:23-26 NASB
“For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread; and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.”
For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until He comes
.”
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Matt 26:26-29 NASB
“While they were eating, Jesus took some bread, and after a blessing, He broke it and gave it to the disciples, and said, “Take, eat; this is My body.” And when He had taken a cup and given thanks, He gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you; for this is My blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for forgiveness of sins. But I say to you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it new with you in My Father’s kingdom.””
(Also Mk 14:22-24, and Lk 22:19-22, if you wish to look them up

Was the new covenant expected? Should it have been?

Jeremiah 31:31 NJB
31:31 ‘Look, the days are coming, Yahweh declares, when I shall make a new covenant with the House of Israel (and the House of Judah),

We are redeemed by the Father with Messiah’s blood. Was Jesus the perfect lamb? Did the Father raise him from the dead and glorify him?

1 Peter 1:17-21 NASB
“If you address as Father the One who impartially judges according to each one’s work, conduct yourselves in fear during the time of your stay on earth; knowing that you were not redeemed with perishable things like silver or gold from your futile way of life inherited from your forefathers, but with precious blood, as of a lamb unblemished and spotless, the blood of Christ. For He was foreknown before the foundation of the world, but has appeared in these last times for the sake of you who through Him are believers in God, who raised Him from the dead and gave Him glory, so that your faith and hope are in God.”
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Summary
The priests and people of Jesus time did not expect a ‘suffering servant Messiah’ at his first coming, and had not understood that many of the scriptures had described this initial appearing.
We will look into this a little more next time.

What kind of Messiah did the people expect?

In Palestine at the time of Jesus there was a great expectation amongst the people regarding ‘the coming Messiah’, as prophesied in many Hebrew scriptures. At that time various leaders had arisen and had proven to be false, with their followers falling away , see for example:

Acts 5:35-40 NASB
“For some time ago Theudas rose up, claiming to be somebody, and a group of about four hundred men joined up with him. But he was killed, and all who followed him were dispersed and came to nothing. After this man, Judas of Galilee rose up in the days of the census and drew away some people after him; he too perished, and all those who followed him were scattered. So in the present case, I say to you, stay away from these men and let them alone, for if this plan or action is of men, it will be overthrown; but if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow them; or else you may even be found fighting against God.” They took his advice; and after calling the apostles in, they flogged them and ordered them not to speak in the name of Jesus, and then released them.”
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Looking at Psalm 2, a Messianic Psalm, did the people expect ‘the Lord’s anointed’ to be a victorious king breaking to pieces their enemies like pottery with an iron rod?

Psalms 2:2 NJB
Kings of the earth take up position, princes plot together against Yahweh and his anointed

Psalms 2:6 NJB

‘I myself have anointed my king on Zion my holy mountain.

Psalms 2:8-9 NJB
2:8 Ask of me, and I shall give you the nations as your birthright, the whole wide world as your possession.
2:9 With an iron sceptre you will break them, shatter them like so many pots

And also

Psalms 45:2-7 NJB
45:2 Of all men you are the most handsome, gracefulness is a dew upon your lips, for God has blessed you for ever.
45:3 Warrior, strap your sword at your side, in your majesty and splendour advance,
45:4 ride on in the cause of truth, gentleness and uprightness. Stretch the bowstring tight, lending terror to your right hand.
45:5 Your arrows are sharp, nations lie at your mercy, the king’s enemies lose heart.
45:6 Your throne is from God, for ever and ever, the sceptre of your kingship a sceptre of justice,
45:7 you love uprightness and detest evil. This is why God, your God, has anointed you with oil of gladness, as none of your rivals,

Was the Messiah to be a mighty king, ruling on the throne of David?

Isaiah 9:5-6 NJB
9:5 For a son has been born for us, a son has been given to us, and dominion has been laid on his shoulders; and this is the name he has been given, ‘Wonder-Counsellor, Mighty-God, Eternal-Father, Prince-of-Peace’
9:6 to extend his dominion in boundless peace, over the throne of David and over his kingdom to make it secure and sustain it in fair judgement and integrity. From this time onwards and for ever, the jealous love of Yahweh Sabaoth will do this

No wonder the people were excited about this Messiah King and his coming kingdom to Israel when they read Isaiah 11

Isaiah 11:1-16 NJB
11:1 A shoot will spring from the stock of Jesse, a new shoot will grow from his roots.
11:2 On him will rest the spirit of Yahweh, the spirit of wisdom and insight, the spirit of counsel and power, the spirit of knowledge and fear of Yahweh:
11:3 his inspiration will lie in fearing Yahweh. His judgement will not be by appearances. his verdict not given on hearsay.
11:4 He will judge the weak with integrity and give fair sentence for the humblest in the land. He will strike the country with the rod of his mouth and with the breath of his lips bring death to the wicked.
11:5 Uprightness will be the belt around his waist, and constancy the belt about his hips.
11:6 The wolf will live with the lamb, the panther lie down with the kid, calf, lion and fat-stock beast together, with a little boy to lead them.
11:7 The cow and the bear will graze, their young will lie down together. The lion will eat hay like the ox.
11:8 The infant will play over the den of the adder; the baby will put his hand into the viper’s lair.
11:9 No hurt, no harm will be done on all my holy mountain, for the country will be full of knowledge of Yahweh as the waters cover the sea.
11:10 That day, the root of Jesse, standing as a signal for the peoples, will be sought out by the nations and its home will be glorious.
11:11 When that day comes, the Lord will raise his hand a second time to ransom the remnant of his people, those still left, from Assyria, from Egypt, from Pathros, Cush and Elam, from Shinar, Hamath and the islands of the Sea.
11:12 He will hoist a signal for the nations and assemble the outcasts of Israel; he will gather the scattered people of Judah from the four corners of the earth.
11:13 Then Ephraim’s jealousy will cease and Judah’s enemies be suppressed; Ephraim will no longer be jealous of Judah nor Judah any longer hostile to Ephraim,
11:14 but together they will swoop on the Philistines’ back, to the west, and together pillage the people of the east. Edom and Moab will be subject to their sway and the Ammonites will obey them.
11:15 Then Yahweh will dry up the gulf of the Sea of Egypt, he will raise his hand against the River with the heat of his breath. He will divide it into seven streams for them to cross dry-shod.
11:16 And there will be a highway for the remnant of his people for those still left, from Assyria, as there was for Israel when he came out of Egypt.

And when they read Psalms 72, especially verses 9-14, did they want to see this victorious king come in their time?

Psalms 72:9-14 NJB
72:9 The Beast will cower before him, his enemies lick the dust;
72:10 the kings of Tarshish and the islands will pay him tribute. The kings of Sheba and Saba will offer gifts;
72:11 all kings will do him homage, all nations become his servants.
72:12 For he rescues the needy who calls to him, and the poor who has no one to help.
72:13 He has pity on the weak and the needy, and saves the needy from death.
72:14 From oppression and violence he redeems their lives, their blood is precious in his sight.

When they heard Jesus and saw his miracles did they welcome him joyously as the son of David, the Messiah

Matthew 21:8-9 NASB
“Most of the crowd spread their coats in the road, and others were cutting branches from the trees and spreading them in the road. The crowds going ahead of Him, and those who followed, were shouting, “Hosanna to the Son of David; BLESSED IS HE WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD; Hosanna in the highest!””
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Luke 19:38 NASB
“shouting: “BLESSED IS THE KING WHO COMES IN THE NAME OF THE LORD; Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!”
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Did they want to make Jesus king by force?

John 6:15 NASB
“So Jesus, perceiving that they were intending to come and take Him by force to make Him king, withdrew again to the mountain by Himself alone.
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What was Jesus reaction to this? Same verse. Why? He had not come to be king at this time, he had come for another reason, which he tried to spell out to his disciples.
What was the reaction of Jesus’ disciples when he told them he must suffer and die? Did they expect this

Luke 9:44-45 NASB
“”Let these words sink into your ears; for the Son of Man is going to be delivered into the hands of men.” But they did not understand this statement, and it was concealed from them so that they would not perceive it; and they were afraid to ask Him about this statement.

Matt 16:21-22 NASB
“From that time Jesus began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day. Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, “God forbid it, Lord! This shall never happen to You.””
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Matt 16:21-22 NASB
“From that time Jesus began to show His disciples that He must go to Jerusalem, and suffer many things from the elders and chief priests and scribes, and be killed, and be raised up on the third day. Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him, saying, “God forbid it, Lord! This shall never happen to You.””
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Luke 18:31-34 NASB
They were not expecting the Messiah to come first as ‘the suffering servant’ and then subsequently as ‘the conquering king’ at his ‘second coming’.

After his crucifixion did Jesus explain it to two of his followers on the road to Emmaus? See Luke 24:13-35, particularly v27.

Luke‬ ‭24:13-33, 35-37‬ ‭NASB‬‬‬‬
‭‭ “And behold, two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus, which was about seven miles from Jerusalem. And they were talking with each other about all these things which had taken place. While they were talking and discussing, Jesus Himself approached and began traveling with them. But their eyes were prevented from recognizing Him. And He said to them, “What are these words that you are exchanging with one another as you are walking?” And they stood still, looking sad. One of them, named Cleopas, answered and said to Him, “Are You the only one visiting Jerusalem and unaware of the things which have happened here in these days?” And He said to them, “What things?” And they said to Him, “The things about Jesus the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word in the sight of God and all the people, and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered Him to the sentence of death, and crucified Him. But we were hoping that it was He who was going to redeem Israel. Indeed, besides all this, it is the third day since these things happened. But also some women among us amazed us. When they were at the tomb early in the morning, and did not find His body, they came, saying that they had also seen a vision of angels who said that He was alive. Some of those who were with us went to the tomb and found it just exactly as the women also had said; but Him they did not see.” And He said to them, “O foolish men and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! Was it not necessary for the Christ to suffer these things and to enter into His glory?” Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures. And they approached the village where they were going, and He acted as though He were going farther. But they urged Him, saying, “Stay with us, for it is getting toward evening, and the day is now nearly over.” So He went in to stay with them. When He had reclined at the table with them, He took the bread and blessed it, and breaking it, He began giving it to them. Then their eyes were opened and they recognized Him; and He vanished from their sight. They said to one another, “Were not our hearts burning within us while He was speaking to us on the road, while He was explaining the Scriptures to us?” And they got up that very hour and returned to Jerusalem, and found gathered together the eleven and those who were with them,‬‬
They began to relate their experiences on the road and how He was recognized by them in the breaking of the bread. While they were telling these things, He Himself stood in their midst and said to them, “Peace be to you.” But they were startled and frightened and thought that they were seeing a spirit.

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Luke 24:27 NASB
“Then beginning with Moses and with all the prophets, He explained to them the things concerning Himself in all the Scriptures.
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After Jesus resurrection did they start to understand what the scriptures said about him?

Lk 24:44-45 NASB
“Now He said to them, “These are My words which I spoke to you while I was still with you, that all things which are written about Me in the Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms must be fulfilled.”
and He said to them, “Thus it is written, that the Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead the third day,

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Just before Jesus’ ascension were his followers still expecting the restoration of the kingdom to Israel?

Acts 1:6 NASB
“So when they had come together, they were asking Him, saying, “Lord, is it at this time You are restoring the kingdom to Israel?””
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Summary

We have seen that at the time of Jesus the people expected a victorious conquering king Messiah who would vanquish their enemies and restore the kingdom to Israel there and then, with all the blessings and benefits that would entail. They had not understood that he had to come first as ‘the suffering servant’ Messiah.
Next time we will look at the Messiah’s first coming, as the ‘suffering servant’.

Who was Jesus

Who is Jesus ?

When he was asked by Jesus, who did Peter say that Jesus was?

Matt 16:16 NASB
“Simon Peter answered, “You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.””
‭‭Peter equates ‘the Christ’ (Messiah) with ‘the son of the living God’. Did the high priest also equate the Messiah with being the son of God?‬‬

Matthew 26:63 NASB
“But Jesus kept silent. And the high priest said to Him, “I adjure You by the living God, that You tell us whether You are the Christ, the Son of God.”

Who did Martha say Jesus was?
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John 11:27 NASB
“She said to Him, “Yes, Lord; I have believed that You are the Christ, the Son of God, even He who comes into the world.””

Did even the demons witness to who Jesus was?

Luke 4:41 NASB
“Demons also were coming out of many, shouting, “You are the Son of God!” But rebuking them, He would not allow them to speak, because they knew Him to be the Christ.”
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Why were all the ‘signs that Jesus did’ recorded?

John 20:31 NASB
“but these have been written so that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; and that believing you may have life in His name.”

Did Jesus ever confirm that he was the Messiah?

John 4:24-25 NASB
“God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth” The woman said to Him, “I know that Messiah is coming (He who is called Christ); when that One comes, He will declare all things to us.”

In the Hebrew scriptures ‘the Messiah’ means ‘the anointed one’. In the New Testament ‘Messiah (Christ)’ and ‘son of God’ often appear together as synonymous titles, as we have seen in the examples above. Psalm 2 is an important scripture relating Yahweh’s anointed (Messiah), with ‘my son’ and also with ‘my king’, as we can see below:

Psalms 2 NJB
2:1 Why this uproar among the nations, this impotent muttering of the peoples?
2:2 Kings of the earth take up position, princes plot together against Yahweh and his anointed,
2:3 ‘Now let us break their fetters! Now let us throw off their bonds!’
2:4 He who is enthroned in the heavens laughs, Yahweh makes a mockery of them,
2:5 then in his anger rebukes them, in his rage he strikes them with terror.
2:6 ‘I myself have anointed my king on Zion my holy mountain.’
2:7 I will proclaim the decree of Yahweh: He said to me, ‘You are my son, today have I fathered you.
2:8 Ask of me, and I shall give you the nations as your birthright, the whole wide world as your possession.
2:9 With an iron sceptre you will break them, shatter them like so many pots.’
2:10 So now, you kings, come to your senses, you earthly rulers, learn your lesson!
2:11 In fear be submissive to Yahweh;
2:12 with trembling kiss his feet, lest he be angry and your way come to nothing, for his fury flares up in a moment. How blessed are all who take refuge in him!

This scripture is often referenced and quoted from by the New Testament writers showing this application to Jesus the Christ (Messiah).

Acts 4:25-28 quotes Psalms 2:1-2
“who by the Holy Spirit, through the mouth of our father David Your servant, said, ‘WHY DID THE GENTILES RAGE, AND THE PEOPLES DEVISE FUTILE THINGS? ‘THE KINGS OF THE EARTH TOOK THEIR STAND, AND THE RULERS WERE GATHERED TOGETHER AGAINST THE LORD AND AGAINST HIS CHRIST.’ For truly in this city there were gathered together against Your holy servant Jesus, whom You anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, to do whatever Your hand and Your purpose predestined to occur.”

Revelation 11:18 NASB references Psalms 2:1
“And the nations were enraged, and Your wrath came, and the time came for the dead to be judged, and the time to reward Your bond-servants the prophets and the saints and those who fear Your name, the small and the great, and to destroy those who destroy the earth.”‭‭‬‬

Acts 13:32-33 , Hebrews 1:5 and 5:5 quote Ps 2:7

Acts 13:32-33 NASB
“And we preach to you the good news of the promise made to the fathers, that God has fulfilled this promise to our children in that He raised up Jesus, as it is also written in the second Psalm, ‘YOU ARE MY SON; TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU.’”

Hebrews 1:5 NASB‬‬
“For to which of the angels did He ever say, “YOU ARE MY SON, TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU “? And again, “I WILL BE A FATHER TO HIM AND HE SHALL BE A SON TO ME “?”

‭‭Hebrews 5:5 NASB‬‬
“So also Christ did not glorify Himself so as to become a high priest, but He who said to Him, “YOU ARE MY SON, TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU “;”
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Revelation 2:26-27 and 12:5 quote Psalms 2:8-9

Revelation‬ ‭2:26-27‬ ‭NASB‬‬‬‬
He who overcomes, and he who keeps My deeds until the end, TO HIM I WILL GIVE AUTHORITY OVER THE NATIONS; AND HE SHALL RULE THEM WITH A ROD OF IRON, AS THE VESSELS OF THE POTTER ARE BROKEN TO PIECES, as I also have received authority from My Father;”

Revelation 12:5 NASB
“And she gave birth to a son, a male child, who is to rule all the nations with a rod of iron; and her child was caught up to God and to His throne.”

Revelation 19:15 quotes Ps 2:9
From His mouth comes a sharp sword, so that with it He may strike down the nations, and He will rule them with a rod of iron; and He treads the wine press of the fierce wrath of God, the Almighty.”
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Did the Father ever give testimony as to who Jesus is?
When he was baptised by John (again referenced to Ps 2:7)

Matthew 3:17 NASB
and behold, a voice out of the heavens said, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well-pleased.”
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At the transfiguration again, this time with an added instruction

Mark 9:7 NASB
“Then a cloud formed, overshadowing them, and a voice came out of the cloud, “This is My beloved Son, listen to Him!“”
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The Messiah is also referred to as ‘son of David’

Matthew 1:1 NASB
The record of the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah, the son of David, the son of Abraham:
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Matthew 22:42 NASB
“”What do you think about the Christ, whose son is He?” They said to Him, ” The son of David.“”
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Were Peter and the other disciples inspired to clearly witness to Jesus being the Messiah on the day of Pentecost in Acts chapter 2? Particularly see verse 36.

Acts 2:36 NASB
“Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ-this Jesus whom you crucified.“”

Summary

From examining the scriptures above we have seen that Jesus was clearly identified as the Messiah (Christ), also referred to as ‘son of God’, ‘son of the living God’, and ‘son of David’. On two occasions a voice from heaven witnessed that ‘this is my beloved son’, the second time saying ‘listen to him’.

Next time we will look at what was expected of the Messiah.